H- Modern World Midterm: Chapter 17- Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

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Natural Philosophy

science as a branch of philosophy... study of knowledge of the natural world

Copernicus

the man who developed the first modern theory of a sun-centered universe

"Revolutions of Heavenly Orbs"

developed by Copernicus, this work said that the planets circulate in a circular motion

Galileo

the scientist who formulated the experimental method and using this, came up with the law of inertia, among several discoveries related to the moon

Heliocentrism

the belief that the sun was the center of the solar system and that the earth rotated around it

Kepler

the man who came up with three laws.. this astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun

Experimental Method

a technique used to demonstrate cause and effect by purposely manipulating circumstances and measuring the final effect

Law of Inertia

the law that states rest is not objects natural state, objects continue in motion forever unless stoped by an outside force... discovered by Galileo

Newton

the man who wrote Principia in 1687... he made the three laws of mechanics and the law of gravity... he also invented calculus

Law of Universal Gravitation

the law that states that all objects in the universe are attracted to all other objects

Empiricism

the view that science flourishes through observation and experiment

Cartesian Dualism

the idea that reduces all things to mind and matter discovered by Descartes

Scientific community

a collection of people who share a system of rules and attitudes that sustain the process of producing scientific knowledge

Descartes

the French philosopher who discovered analytical geometry he saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship... he reduced everything to mind and matter... he said "I think therefor I am"

Bacon

the scientist who spread the word about the experimental method and formalized the empirical method and combined his thinking with Descartes to form the scientific method

Rationalism

the idea that nothing should be accepted on faith

Progress

the idea that the goal is to create better societies and people by discarding old traditions

Skepticism

the idea that nothing can ever be known for certain

Tabula Rosa

the belief that the mind at birth was a blank slate... thought of by John Locke

Philosophes

the group of French "radicals" who focused on human reason and making critical changes in society

Separation of Powers

the principle of government whereby constitutional authority is shared by three separate branches of government... thought of by Montesquieu

Montesquieu

the Enlighenment writer who believed in seperation of powers

"Spirit of Laws"

the laws written by Montesique talking about the seperation of powers and how government should be divided up into separate branches of government

Voltaire

the French diest who mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions... he wrote Candide and believed enlightened despotism was the best form of government

Adam Smith

the Scottish economist who wrote "The Wealth of Nations" and designed modern capitalism

Kant

the German philosopher who developed idealism and had a lot to do with Deism

Diderot

the man who published the work of many philosphes in his "Encyclopedia"... he hoped it would help people think more rationally and critically

Reading Revolution

the transformation into a society where literacy was commonplace... people were not picky about what they read

Salons

the meeting places for philosophical discussion that were for the upper and middle class citizens during the enlightenment

Public Sphere

the area in social life where people can get together and freely discuss societal problems

Rousseau

the man who criticized Enlightenment ideas and believed that people were naturally good but civilized life corrupted them... he wrote the liked the idea of general will and wrote the "Social Contract"

Social Contract

grees to bethe idea that an entire society a governed by its general will

General Will

the reacting of the common interests of the people who have displaced the monarch as the holder of ultimate power

Enlightened Despots

an absolute ruler who used their power to bring about political and social change... they were very much influenced by the enlightenment

Absolutists

the monarchists who believed that they got their own power from God

Frederick the Great

the Prussian king who embraced culture and wrote poetry and prose... he gave religious and philosophical toleration to all subjects, abolished torture and made the laws simpler

Maria Theresa

mother of Marie Antoinette... had to fight off Prussia as soon as she ascended to the throne

Joseph II

the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom

Seven Years War

the worldwide struggle between France and Great Britain for power and control of land... included the French and Indian War

Catherine the Great

the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia

"Principia"

the book written by Newton which established the law of universal gravitation and banished Ptolemy's laws and universe for good

Deism

the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation... the idea that God is a clockmaker

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