US History Terms

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Minutemen

They were the colonial militia and could be ready for battle very quickly. Mainly in new England, men started collecting arms and ammunition. This storing lead to the battle of lexington and concord.

Major john pitcarin

2nd leader of the 700 british army heading from boston to concord. In the front of the procession and decides to attack militia in Lexington. Had a temper. Cause of whole event because rash. Tells Americans to move and they do then the unknown shot.

Paul revere

famous colonist black smith. One of the three riders to warn colonists of the coming british. Part of sons of liberty.

sir henry Clinton

british general during rev. war. Part of 3 pronged attack to Albany. Failed bc moved to late and couldn't support the others.

benedict Arnold

American leader in rev. war. Marries peggy shippen who was a stout loyalist.. he felt he was underappriciated in America and turned to the british. He turns west point into the british and wants to surrender fort to them.He was stopped by American militia bc they wanted to steal his boots and found the note at the bottom of the boot. Arnold immediately went to british and major loss for colonist. He later moved to Britain.

Ft Ticonderoga

built around lake champlain in ny. Built by the French during the French and Indian wars. Captured by the british then taken back by Americans and again to british. Surrendered by Washington

Richard henry lee

makes the first proposal for American independence in the 2nd??contintental congress. Statesman from virginia

declaration of independence

written by thomas Jefferson, signed by founding fathers. Adopted by 2nd continetal congress. It said that the 13 colonies were no longer apart of the british empire but separate states. Written a yr after the outbreak of rev. est. listed colonial grievances to king george and emphasized the importance of natural rights.= life liberty and pursuit of happiness.

The American crisis

written by thomas paine to keep up the moral of colonists. Series of pamphlets. Written when people weary of war. Justified it and clarified goals. Read to soldiers before the battle of trenton

Thaddeus kosciuzko

he had fought in the American Revolutionary War as a colonel in the Continental Army. Engineered defense works. Esp for Bemis heights battle

major andre

look at benedict arnold id. Hung by Americans as a spy. British army officer.

Casimir Pulaski

polish American soldier. Known as father of American calvary. Became general in washington's army. Saved the life of washington once and died in battle of savannah. Trained men in calvary tactics.

Lord Cornwallis

replaced henry Clinton. Big british leader. Ruled 8000 regulars. General. Is not very successful in the rev. war, but successful elsewhere.

Thomas sumter

patriot who specialized in guerilla war fare. Atangonized the british during the rev. war with 2 other guys. Ft. sumter named after him. From south Carolina. Nicknamed Carolina gamecock. Became member of congress later. Born in viriginia. Most known for driving Cornwallis out of the Carolinas into Virginia.

Nathaniel greene

was a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War. When the war began, Greene was a militia private, the lowest rank possible; he emerged from the war with a reputation as George Washington's most gifted and dependable officer. Many places in the United States are named for him.

Rochambeau

was the commander-in-chief of the French Force which came to help the Americans. At last, in July 1781, Rochambeau's force finally left Rhode Island, marching across Connecticut to join Washington on the Hudson River, New York. There then followed the celebrated march of the combined forces, the siege of Yorktown and the Battle of the Chesapeake. On 22 September, they combined with Marquis de Lafayette's troops and forced Lord Cornwallis to surrender on 19 October.

Capt john barry

was an officer in the Continental Navy .He is often credited as "The Father of the American Navy". He and his crew of the Alliance fought and won the final naval battle of the American Revolution.

Carlisle commission

The Carlisle Peace Commission was a group of British negotiators. After the British defeat at Saratoga, sent a commission to seek a negotiated settlement with the Continental Congress. Congress replied insisting on American independence.

Treaty of paris

ended the revolutionary war. Recognized every state as independent republic and entity. This was used by southerners during civil war. Results of the treaty:1. Doubles size of us-western border is is Mississippi. 2. Gets use of grand banks on Canadian border. It becomes an open usage for Americans, britsh and Canadians. It's a fishery= one of the greatest on earth.3. agreed that debts owed before rev. war don't have to be paid. 4. Loyalist property was valued in the millions. Said they were allowed to go to court and regain land. But never really ocmes about and land still disputed today.1. things change immediately and trade with England dropped off for awhile.

Gov. morris

represented Pennsylvania in the Constitutional Convention of 1787. He was also an author of large sections of the Constitution of the United States and one of its "signers". He is widely credited as the author of the document's preamble:

Critical years

time between the end of the rev. war and the adoption of the constitution. Articles of conferderation was the instrument of govt. imp time bc would set the course of the country for the future. 1783-89. Struggled btw federalism and centralism for the national govt.

Veto and pocket veto

prez. Has the power to veto any law passed by congress. For congress to override this veto, need 2/3 majority. Pocket veto is where a law is given to the prez to pass. If he doesn't really want to deal with the issue, or doesn't agree, hell avoid it by pocketing it. He does this until the session is over and congress would have to start again.

Katy ferguson

was an African American who founded the first Sunday school in New York City. Ferguson's teaching instructions included the memorization of hymns and Scripture. Created first mixed school.

eli whitney

American inventor. developed the cotton gin in 1793. This helps slaves bc didn't need to clean cotton by hand which takes off a lot of time in the production process. Now can plant more cotton= make more money and less worke for slaves.= revolutionary. This helped shape the economy of the south.

Washington D.C

capital of the u.s. was moved here during washington's presidenticy. The secretary of treasury, Hamilton assumed the 80 million dollar debt a national debt and guaranteed to pay everyone back.= he nationalized the debt. The south was suspicious because the southern states didn't owe that much debt. Hamilton promised the new capital would be built in the south so the southerners could watch over affairs. This appeased them and ended in dc.

Walt Whitman

another intellectual influenced by emerson. Was a poet, teacher, journalist, and editor of the Brooklyn Eagle. Supported the democratic party. He celebrated democracy by seeking a mystical relationship with a mass audience.. the individual had a divine spark. The individual had expanded to become divine, and democracy assumed a sacred character.

Hawthorne

influenced by emerson. Was a pessimistic novelist. Made powerful warnings that too much ego could destroy individuals and those around them. He explored the theme of excessive individualism in his novel the scarlet letter.

Melville

novelist during the individualism movement inspired by emerson. He explored the limits of individualism in even more extreme and tragic terms and emerged as a scathing critic of trancendentalism. He wrote Moby Dick in 1851. The book was at first a failure- too dark for the public.

Mormons

a group that appeared during the second great awakening. Of puritan decent and lived along the erie canal originally. The founder of the mormon church was Joseph smith jr. he was born in Vermont and moved to ny later. In a series of religious experiences that began in 1820, smith came to believe god had adingled him out to receive a special revelation of divine truth. He published The Book of Mormon. Which claimed to have translated from ancient hieroglyphics on gold plates shown to him by an angel named Moroni. It told the story of an ancient civilation from the middle east that had migrated to the western hemisphere and of the visit of jesus, soon after the resuurection, to one of them. He organized the Church of Jesus Christ and the Latter Day Saints. He saw himself a prophet in a sinful, excessive, individualistic society. He revived traditional doctrines within the family. Man was dominate in the house. He encouraged practiced that were central to individual success in a capitalist economy and the mormons prospered greatly. They practiced poligomy, and so was not popular amoung everyone else smith ws arrested and charged for treason when tried to create a state in Mexican territory.

William Lloyd garrison

was a massachussets printer and abolitionist. started his own antislavery weekly, The Liberator. He founded the New England Anti Slavery Society. He demanded the immediate aboltion of slavery without compensation to slave holders.

Dorthea dix

women's rights activist that tried to improve public institutions. She used her grandparents resources to set up a charity schools to rescue absued children. She published 7 books, most imp was Conversations of Common Things. Was a treatise on natural science and moral improvement. Later she discovered insane women were jailed along side male criminals. She persuaded the massachsetts lawmakers to enlarge the state hospital to accommodate mental patients. She began a national movement to establish separtate, well funded states hospitals for those with mental illnesses. She aroused public support.

Harriet Beecher Stowe

wrote uncle tom's cabin. It charged that among the greatest moral failings of slavery was degradation of slave women. She claimed sexual assaults were compounded by the cruel treatment they suffered at the hands of their owners wives who were enraged by their husbands promiscuity.

Elizabeth cady Stanton

women's right advocate. Taking the declaraton of independence as a model, they extended the republican idealogy to women.They called church to reform their ideas on women they wanted women tot have the right to vote.

Susan b Anthony

was a political leader and lobbist in the women's rights movement. She was from a quaker family and participated in the antislavery movements. In 1860, her efforts payed off- ny law granted women the right to collect and spend their own wages, own property, and assume sole guardian ship of children if widowed.

John brown

was a militant abolitionist. In 1859, he lead 18 heavily armed black and white men in a raid I on ther federal arsenal at harpers ferry, Virginia. He hoped to secure hundreds of weapons, spark a slave rebellion, and est. a separate aftican American state in the south. Democrats supported him while republicans did not. He was charged with treason, and senteneced to be hanged. Northerns tried to defend him. It struck fear in southerners about the future of slavery.

Shakers

They would shake in the presence of god- a ritual dance like the quakers. Believed in celibacy. Separated man and women so relied on adult converts. Protestant religious sect durin 2nd awakening. Shakers also believed that their lives should be dedicated to pursuing perfection and continuously confessing their sins and attempting a cessation of sinning. Elevated position of women = said equal to men.

Noah Webster

big guy for education. Created the Webster dictionary.

Barbary/ tripolitan wars

The Barbary Wars (or Tripolitan Wars) were two wars about issue was the Barbary pirates' demand of tribute from American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean Sea.

John marshall

supreme court justice- chief justice. Was a federalist. Shaped american policy and the ct system ct cases on list decided by him. Marshall has been credited with cementing the position of the judiciary as an independent and influential branch of government..

Haitian revolt

1801. NB sees lousiania territory as good land for empire. But then mind changes with this revolt. One of the worst slave rebellions. \ Rebellion led by toussaint l'overture. The french general was gen le clerc. He goes there, nb's bro, and a 20000 army. But down rebellion, but troublesome and half army dies of malaria and yellow fever. Nb doesn't think america worth the fight so sells land to america for good price. Plus france in major debt. Sells land for 15 million to jefferson. Jefferson sent an ambassador from virginia, james monroe. Doubles the size of america.

Trafalgar

1805.only french failed battle during NB's rule. Navel battle in the ocean. Lord nelson had led it.). The battle was the most decisive British naval victory of the war.. The Franco-Spanish fleet lost twenty-two ships, without a single British vessel being lost.

War of 1812

was unpopular in new England because that region was made mostly of industry and merchant and whaling ships were used for the American fleet. Unpopular with federalist Americans fight the Indians that allied with britian. There were several immediate stated causes for the U.S. declaration of war: first, a series of trade restrictions introduced by Britain to impede American trade with France, second, the impressment (forced recruitment) of U.S. citizens into the Royal Navy; third, the British military support for American Indians who were offering armed resistance to the expansion of the American frontier. Peace treaty was signed= treaty of ghent. The U.S. ended the aboriginal threat on its western and southern borders. Shawnee- a group of indians that allied with the british during the war of 1812. Along with the creek indians, they fight. They were lead by tecumseh and the prophet. They were defending the area around ohio from expansion. Were defeated in the battle of tippecanoe. The prophet dies.

Creeks

look above. Fought with the british in war of 1812 defending their land from expansion. In the southeastern region of florida, georgia, alabama, and oklohoma.

William weatherford

replaced the prophet when he died in battle. Was half scottish and half indian. was a Creek (Muscogee) Native American who led the Creek War offensive against the United States.

Andrew Jackson

fought indians in the war of 1812 in the southeast. Won horseshoe bends in for americans. He even goes and fights in spanish territory to stop indian raids in southern territory= tough and aggressive. He leads and wins the battle of new orleans. his He was the first to have an informal group of advisors but also close friends and advisors- kitchen cabinent. He gave political offices to supporters and friends= developed the spoils system. Won election in 1828, and won in a landslide against john quincy adams.

Battle of lake eerie

americans won victory over england. sometimes referred to as the

Tariff of 1828

est. by john quincy adams. Raised price of foreign goods which pissed off southerners bc they were not industry minded. It just raised the prices for them. They called it an "abominations" tariff. John Calhoun wrote against it- Tariff of abomination. Big uproar in south Carolina.

South Carolina exposition and protest

The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, also known as Calhoun's Exposition, was written in 1828 by John C. Calhoun, the Vice President of the United States under John Quincy Adams..The document was a protest against the Tariff of 1828. The document stated that if the tariff was not repealed, South Carolina would secede. It stated also Calhoun's Doctrine of nullification, i.e., the idea that a state has the right to reject federal law.

Rachel Jackson

married andrew Jackson. Well she married lewis robards, was not happy, and wanted a divorce. Lewis never turned in papers, but rachel thought was divorced so married andrew jackson. Affair came about when jackson ran for prez. Scandal ruined her life. She died while he was in office. Jackson from then on sympathetic to women and ended up splitting his cabinent.

Abigail Adams

demanded equal legal rights for married women, who under common law couldnt not own property, enter in to contracts, or initaite lawsuits. She told her husband, prez john adams that men would be tyrants if they continiuted to hold such power over women.. she critized patriots for emancipating all nations from monarchial depotism while retaining absolute power over wives. was the wife of John Adams.

Judith sargent murray

well educated daughter of wealthy massachusetts merchant. Wrote "On Equality of the Sexes". She argued men and woman had an equal capacity for memory and women had a superior imagination. She concluded that most women were inferior to men in judgement and reasoning, but only bc they had not been trained.

American colonization society

1817- est. by people worried of the impact of slavery and race on society. They argued slavery had to end, and americans had to send black slaves back to Africa. Was a failure of a plan. Few planters freed their slaves, some blacks didn't want to leave even. America even bought land in africa, liberia, to place the slaves. Only six thousand slaves were transported. West coast of africa.

American system

promoted by henry clay. Argued it was an integral part of national economic development similar to the commonwealth system policies pursued by

Whigs

basically the federalist party reappeared after the fall after the battle of new orleans ordeal. Created to oppose andrew jackson policies, and king like conduct. Got name from the pre revolutionary and british parties that opposed the arbitrary acts fo the pres. Lead by calhoun and clay. Goal was a world dominated by men of wealth and ability. Elite chosen by talent, not birth. Celebrating the enterprising individual. Capitalist society based.

Ralph waldo emerson

was the leading voice in trancedentalism in america in the mid 19th century. Influenced by romanticism in europe. He wanted to capture the passionate aspects of the human spirit and so gain a deeper insight to the mysteries of existence. He celebrated those who rejected traditional constraints, but retained self and civic responsibility. He remade American literature. He wrote the "The American Scholar." This argues to celebrate democracy and individual freedom and to find inspiration in ordinary human experiences.

Henry Thoreau

new England intellectual during the time of emerson. He became depressed by his brothers death, he turned away from society and turned to nature for inspiration. He built a cabin at the edge of walden pond near concord massachussetts. He lived there alone for two, and wrote the book, "Walden, or a Life in the Woods." He advocated social nonconformity and civil disobedience against unjust laws.

Indian removal acts

downside of jackson's presidency. Est. in 1830. Forced the Indians to go across the river from Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee and Georgia to Oklahoma. The Cherokee fight this in ct and win- Werckeaster vs. Georgia. The supreme ct favors Indians, but have no enforcemenet power so nothing happens. Southerners happy bc wanted the land.

Empresarios

hired by Mexican people to bring as many American settlers to the large Mexican territory. They would get lg amounts of land for reward. The prolblem was most ppl coming over were southerners with slaves, and slavery was outlawed in the Mexican constitution. The most famous ones were Stephen and moses Austin.

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