HONORS HISTORY STUDY GUIDE

252 terms by mthouse25 

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Nearly 3/4 of the overall study guide

Torah

the first five books of the old testament

purple people

Phoenicians

they used purple dye

why were the purple people called this name?

ancient stone

what does Paleolithic mean?

Nile

what is the longest river in the world?

Moses

recieved the Ten Commandments at Mount Sinai

Amenhotep

changed his name to Akhenaton

Judah in the north and Israel in the south

the the two kingdoms of Israel after their split in 900 B.C.

the time before written language

what is prehistory?

Hammurabi

babylonian king starting in 1792 B.C.; had a harsh law code of 282 laws

Menes

united Egypt into one kingdom in 3200 B.C.

Jean-Francois Champollion

decipherer of the Rosetta Stone

Book of the Dead

scrolls that served as a guide for the afterlife in ancient Egypt

Donald Johanson

discovered Lucy in 1974

Moses

led the Hebrews out of Egypt in the Exodus

Howard Carter

discovered King Tut's tomb

the Ten Commandments

held in the Ark of the Covenant

Buddhism

religion associated with the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path

Analects

collection of the teachings of Confucious

Silk Road

trade route from China to the Mediterranean Sea

selfish and untrustworthy

legalists believed that man was.....

Siddhartha Guatama (Buddha)

founder of Buddhism

northern India

location of the Ganges river

Liu Bang

founder of the Han dynasty

Mahayana

which is fancier; Theravada or Mahayanna Buddhism?

Laozi

founder of Daoism

pictographic, which became Sanskrit

name of the Indo-Aryan writing system

Dao De Jing

collection of the teachings of Laozi

civil service

Centralized system that runs day to day business of government

genealogy

Record of family history

Polis

A greek term for a city state which was developed around a central fortress

Agora

Marketplace in Greece

Oracles

Ancient Greeks believed that gods spoke through priests and priestesses

Aristocracies

Greek city states controlled by nobles

Democracy

Government in which people rule

Tyrants

Rulers who seized power by force but had the support of the people

Import

A good shipped in from another country

Export

A product sold to another country

Ethics

Study of what is good and bad

Rhetoric

Study of public speaking and debating

Pedagogue

A male slave who taught a boy manners in Ancient Greece

Golden Age

Era of cultural progress in Greece in the 400s B.C.

Philosophy

Study of basic questions of reality and human existence

Phalanx

Military formation composed of rows of soldiers standing shoulder to shoulder with spears

Republic

Form of government in which voters elect people to run the government

Dictator

Absolute Ruler

Patrician

Powerful roman landowners who controlled society

Plebians

Farmers and workers who made up the majority of the Roman population

Triumvirate

Political alliance of three rulers

Rabbis

Religious scholars of Judaism

Bishops

Heads of the Catholic Church in major cities

Pope

Head of the Catholic Church, means father

Martyrs

Persons put to death for their beliefs

Inflation

Rise in prices by a decrease in the value of a medium exchange

Matrilinear

Tracing your ancestry through the mother's side

Potlatches

Ceremonial gatherings of Native Americans and Pacific Northwest

chinampas

Raised fields by Aztecs made from mud

quipu

Kind of knotted string string used as a memory aid by the Inca

Dowry

Goods brought into a relationship by the women

Icon

A picture of Jesus, Virgin Mary, or a saint

Heresy

Opinion that conflicts with official church beliefs

Excommunication

Official edict that bars a person from church membership

boyars

Nobles who advised the prince in Russia

Czar

Title take by Ivan the Terrible, Russian for Caesar

Jihad

Teaching of Islam to defend the faith

Hijrah

Migration of Muhammed and his followers in AD 622, marking the first year on the Muslim calendar

mosques

Muslim place of worship

Shogun

Chief military and governmental officer in Japan

Samurai

Japanese warrior hired for protection of lords

Seppuku

Form of ceremonial suicide by defeated or disloyal samurai

Daimyo

Powerful local lords in Japan

Bushido

Code of behavior for samurai

Sophocles

author of Oedipus Rex

Pesistratus

a tyrant in Athens between 546 B.C. and 527 B.C.

Phillip II of Macedon

father of Alexander the Great

the Trojan War

subject of the Iliad

Herodotus

father of history

Socrates

philosopher who drank hemlock to end his life after being convicted of corrupting Athenian youth

Heinrich Schleimann

German man who confirmed that the Trojan War was an actual event

Crete

island where Minoan civilization arose

Hellenic culture

describes the culture in Greece

Hellenistic culture

describes the culture that spread to other places from Greece

Pericles

man that helped Athens reach its peak; served from 461 B.C. to 429 B.C.

Thucydides

fair and accurate writer of History of the Peloponnesian War

Homer

blind poet and author of the Odyssey and the Iliad

Aristotle

author of Ethics and Poetics; founded a school called the Lyceum

hubris

excessive pride

Archimedes

Hellenistic scientist; calculated pi, explained how levers worked, invented a water screw, and developed a theory about water displacement

Hippocrtaes

father of medicine

Athens

state that formed the Delian League

Parthenon

temple in Athens built to honor Athena

Draco

wrote Athens's first law code

Odysseus's journey home from the Trojan War

subject of the Odyssey

Pythagoras

calculated a theorem to find the missing side of a right triangle

lover of wisdom

definition of philosopher

Mycenaeans

group that conquered Minoans around 1400 B.C.

Sparta

winner of the Peloponnesian War

Persia

group of people who helped Sparta win the Peloponnesian War

military

center of Spartan culture

Euclid

author of Elements

Democritus

developed atomic theory

Zeno

established the Stoic philosophy

Plato

author of the Republic; founded a school called the Academy

medieval

The period of western European history known as the Middle Ages

feudalism

Political system of local government based on the granting of land in return for loyalty, military assistance, and other services

manorialism

Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land

fief

Grant of land given to a vassal from a lord

vassal

Person granted land from a lord in return for services

primogeniture

System of inheritance from father to eldest son for ownership or possession of land

serfs

Peasants who were bound to the land where they worked for a lord

chivalry

Code of conduct that dictated knights behavior toward others

canon law

The code of law in the Catholic Church

common law

Law based upon customs and judges decisions rather than upon written code

tithe

Church tax collected from Christians in early times that represnted one tenth of one's income

usury

Policy of charging high interest on loans

capital

Wealth that is earned, saved, or invested to make profits

vernacular languages

Everyday speech that varies from place to place

scholasticism

Medieval philosophy attempting to bring together faith and reason

humanists

People who specialize in studying the humanities, which includes grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric

indulgences

Paid pardons from punishment for sin

theocracy

Government ruled by religious leaders claiming God's authority

geocentric theory

Theory according to Ptolemy that the Earth is the center of the universe

heliocentric theory

Theory developed by Copernicus that the sun is the center of the universe

Jesus

man whose teachings is the basis for Christianity

Nero

Roman emperor who blamed Christians for a fire that ravaged Rome; played the fiddle while it burned

Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus

three members of the first triumvirate

Punic Wars

the name of the wars between Rome and the people of Carthage

Hannibal

Carthaginian leader in the second Punic War

Hadrian

Roman emperor who put down the last major Jewish revolt during Rome's reign in 135

reform for the public

Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus are known for this

Pompeii

city buried in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius

Augustus

Roman emperor at the time of Jesus Christ's birth

Attila the Hun

in 451, led an assault on Gaul

north of the Iberian peninsula

location of Gaul

France

present day name of Gaul

Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus

three members of the second triumvirate

Zealots

people that encouraged rebellion against Rome because they believed outside influences posed a danger to their religion

Circus Maximus

a very large and well-known racetrack in ancient Rome

the Roman Peace

translate Pax Romana

Edict of Milan

granted religious freedom to Christians in 312

Octavian

given name of Augstus, the first Roman emperor

the Five Good Emperors

Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, and Marcus Aurelius

Hadrian

built a wall in Britain to protect it from invasion

Latin

considered the mother of the romance languages

Gospels

the first four books of the New Testament

tariff

Import taxes on goods

subsidies

Government grants of money

guerrilla warfare

Military technique relying on swift raids by small bands of soldiers

junks

large Chinese ships

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