APUSH Cause and Effect (Chapt 1-22)

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Cultivation of corn (maize)

The formation of large, sophisticated civilizations in Mexico and

Aztec legends of a returning god, Quetzalcoatl

Cortés relatively easy conquest of Tenochtitlán

The English victory over the Spanish Armada

Enabled England to gain control of the North Atlantic sea-lanes

The English government's persecution of Roman Catholics

Led Lord Baltimore to establish the Maryland colony

Puritan persecution of religious dissenters like Roger Williams

Led to the founding of Rhode Island as a haven for unorthodox faiths

The Glorious Revolution

Led to overthrow of Andros's Dominion of New England

King Philip's War

Ended New England Indians' attempts to halt white expansion

Poor white males' anger at their inability to acquire land or start families

Sparked Bacon's rebellion

The dramatic increase in colonial slave population after 1680s

Inspired passage of strict "slave codes"

American merchants' search for non-British markets

Was met by British attempts to restrict colonial trade, e.g., the Molasses Act

The Great Awakening

Stimulated a fervent, emotional style of religion, denominational divisions, and a greater sense of inter-colonial American identity

The summoning of the Albany Congress by the British

Represented the first major attempt at intercolonial unity

British issuance of the Proclamation of 1763

Heightened colonial anger and encouraged illegal

America's distance from Britain and the growth of colonial self-government

Led to gradual development of a colonial sense of independence years before the Revolution

The Boston Tea Party

Prompted passage of the Intolerable Acts, including the Boston Port Act

The Intolerable Acts

Prompted the summoning of the First Continental Congress

The Battle of Bunker Hill

Caused King George to proclaim the colonies in revolt and import Hessian troops to crush them

Jefferson's Declaration of Independence

Inspired universal awareness of the American Revolution as a fight for the belief that "all men are created equal"

The collapse of the North ministry and the Whig takeover of the British government

Caused the British to begin peace negotiations in Paris

The weakness of the Articles of Confederation

Nearly bankrupted the national government and invited assaults on American interest by foreign powers

Shays's Rebellion

Scared conservatives and made them determined to strengthen the central government against debtors

Antifederalist fears that the Constitution would destroy liberties

Made the federalist promise to add a bill of rights to the Constitution

Jay's Treaty

Aroused Jeffersonian Republican outrage at the Washington administration's pro-British policies

The XYZ Affair

Caused an undeclared war with France

Jefferson's moderation and continuation of many Federalist policies

Created stability and continuity in the transition of power form one party to another

Adams's appointment of "midnight judges"

Aroused Jeffersonian hostility of the Federalist judiciary and led to repeal the Judiciary Act of 1801

Marshall's ruling in Marbury v. Madison

Established the principle of "judicial review of laws by the Supreme Court

The Barbary pirates' attacks on American shipping

Forced a reluctant Jefferson to send the U.S. Navy into military action

France's acquisition of Louisiana from Spain

Made Americans eager to purchased New Orleans in order to protect their Mississippi River shipping

Napoleon's foreign troubles with Britain and Santo Domingo

Led to a surprise offer to sell Louisiana to the United States for $15 million

The Louisiana Purchase

Provoked Federalists to charge Jefferson with unconstitutional expansionism

British impressment of American sailors and anger at American harboring of British deserters

Led to an aggressive and deadly assault on the American ship Chesapeake

French compliance with Macon's Bill No. 2

Forced Madison to declare a policy of nonimportation that accelerated the drift toward war

Western war hawks' fervor for acquiring Canada and removing resisting Indians

Caused Harrison's and Jackson's military ventures and contributed to the declaration of war in 1821

American lack of military preparation and poor strategy

Produced a series of badly failed attempts to conquer Canada

Oliver H. Perry's and Thomas Macdonough's naval successes

Reversed a string of American defeats and prevented a British-Canadian invasion from the north

Tsar Alexander I's mediation proposal

Eventually led to the beginnings of peace negotiations at Ghent

The Hartford Convention

Contributed to the death of the Federalist Party and the impression that New Englanders were disloyal

Canadians' successful defense of their homeland in the War of 1812

Inspired a new sense of Canadian nationalism

The Rush-Bagot agreement

Reduced armaments along the border between the United States and Canada and laid the groundwork for "the longest unfortified boundary in the world"

The rising nationalistic economic spirit after the War of 1812

Inspired a new Band of the United Sates and the protectionist Tariff of 1816

The disappearance of the Federalists and President Monroe's appeals to New England

Created a temporary one-party system and an "Era of Good Feelings"

Overspeculation in western lands

Caused the economy to collapse in the panic of 1819

Cheap land and increasing westward migration

Fueled demands in Congress for transportation improvements and the removal of the Native Americans

The deadlock between North and South over the future of slavery in Missouri

Produced the Missouri Compromise, which admitted two sates and drew a line between slave and free territories

The Missouri Compromise

Aroused southern fears for the long-term future of slavery

John Marshall's Supreme Court rulings

Upheld the power of the federal government against the states

The rise of European reactionary powers and the loss of Spain's colonial empire

Aroused American and British fears of European intervention in Lain America

The Monroe Doctrine

Angered Britain and other European nations but had little effect in Latin America

The growth of American migration into northern Mexico

Laid the basis for a political conflict that resulted in Texas independence

The demand of many whites to acquire Indian land in Georgia and other states

Fueled the political pressures tat led Andrew Jackson to forcibly remove the Cherokees and others

The Anti-Masonic Party

Brought many evangelical Christians into politics and showed that others besides Jackson could stir up some popular feelings

The failure of any candidate to win and electoral majority in the four-way election of 1824

Threw the bitterly contested election into the U.S. House of Representatives

The alleged "corrupt bargain" between Adams and Clay for the presidency in 1824

Aroused popular anger and made Jackson's supporters determined to elect him in 1828

President Adam's strong nationalistic polices

Aroused the bitter opposition of westerners and southerners, who were increasingly sectionalist

The high New England-back Tariff of 1828

Provoked protests and threats of nullifation from Sotuh Carolina

Andrew Jackson's "war" against Nicholas Biddle and his policies

Got the government out of the Aemrican financial system

Jackson's belief that any ordinary American could hold government office

Laid the foundations for the spoils system that fuel ruled the new mass political parties

The Panic of 1837

Caused widespread human suffering and virtually guaranteed Martin Van Buren's defeat in 1840

The open, rough-and-tumble society of the American West

Made the Americans strongly individualistic and self-reliant

Natural population growth and increasing immigration from Ireland and Germany

Made the fast-growing United States the fourth most populous nation in the Western world

The poverty and Roman Catholic faith of most Irish immigrants

Aroused nativist hostility and occasional riots

Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin

Transformed southern agriculture and gave new life to slavery

The passage of general incorporation and limited-liability laws

Enable businesspeople to create more powerful and effective joint-stock capital ventures

The early efforts of labor unions to organize and strike

Aroused fierce opposition from businesspeople and guardians of the law

Improved western transportation and the new McCormick reaper

Encourage western farmers to specialize in cash-crop agricultural production for eastern and European markets

The completion of the Erie Canal in 1825

Opened the Great Lakes states to rapid economic growth and spurred the development of major cities

The development of a strong east-west rail network

Bound the two northern sections together across the mountains and tended to isolate in the South

The Second Great Awakening

Inspired a widespread spirit of evangelical reform in many areas of American life

The Mormon practice of polygamy

Aroused persecution from morally traditionalist Americans and delayed statehood for Utah

Women abolitionists' anger at being ignored by male reformers

Led to expanding the crusade for equals rights to include women

The women's rights movement

Aroused hostility and scorn in most of the male press and pulpit

Unrealistic expectations and conflict within perfectionist communes

Caused most utopian experiments to decline or collapse in a few years

The Knickerbocker and transcendentalist use of new American themes in their writing

Created the first literature genuinely native to America

Henry David Thoreau's theory of "civil disobedience"

Inspired later practitioners of nonviolence like Gandhi and King

Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass

Captured in one long poem the exuberant and optimistic spirit of popular American democracy

Herman Melville's and Edgar Allan Poe's concern with evil and suffering

Made their works little understood in their lifetimes by generally optimistic Americans

The Transcendentalist movement

Inspire writers like Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller

Whitney's cotton gin and southern frontier expansion

Turned the South into a booming one-crop economy where "cotton was king"

Excessive soil cultivation and financial speculation

Created dangerous weaknesses beneath the surface prosperity of the southern cotton economy

Belief in white superiority and the hope of owning slaves

Kept poor, nonslaveholding whites committed to a system that actually harmed them

The selling of slaves at auctions

Often resulted in the cruel separation of black families

The slaves' love of freedom and hatred of their condition

Caused slaves to work slowly, steal from their masters, and frequently run away

The religious fervor of the Second Great Awakening

Stirred a fervent abolitionist commitment to fight the "sine" of slavery

Politically minded abolitionists like Frederick Douglass

Opposed Garrison and organized the Liberty party and the Free Soil party

Garrison's Liberator and Nat Turner's bloody slave rebellion

Aroused deep fears of rebellion and ended rational discussion of slavery in the South

White southern defenses of slavery as a "positive good"

Widened the moral and political gap between the white South and the rest of the Western world

The constant abolitionist agitation in the North

Made abolitionists personally unpopular but convinced many Northerners that slavery was a threat to American freedom

Tyler's refusal to carry out his own Whig party's policies

Split the Whigs and caused the entire cabinet except Webster to resign

Strong American hostility to Britain

Spared bitter feuds over Canadian rebels, the boundaries of Maine and Oregon, and other issues

British support for the Texas Republic

Increased American determination to annex Texas

Rapidly growing American settlement in Oregon

Strengthened American claims to the Columbia River country and made Britain more wiling to compromise

The upsurge of Manifest Destiny in the 1840s

Created widespread popular support for Polk's expansionist policies on Texas, Oregon, and California

Clay's unsuccessful attempts to straddle the Texas issue

Turned antislavery voters to the Liberty party and helped elect the expansionist Polk

Polk's frustration at Mexico's refusal to sell California

Helped lead to a controversial confrontation with Mexico along the Texas border

The overwhelming American military victory over Mexico

Enabled the United States to take vast territories in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

The rapid Senate ratification of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Thwarted a growing movement calling for the United States to annex all of Mexico

The Wilmot Proviso

Heated up the slavery controversy between the North and South

The evasion of the slavery issue by Whigs and Democrats in 1848

Led to the formation of the new Free-Soil antislavery party

The California gold rush

Made the issue of slavery in the Mexican Cession areas more urgent

The Underground Railroad

Aroused southern demands for an effective fugitive-slave law

The Free Soil Party

Was the predecessor of the antislavery Republicans Party

The Compromise of 1850

Created a short-lived national mood of optimism and reconciliation

The Fugitive Slave Law

Aroused active northern resistance to legal enforcement and prompted attempts at nullification in Massachusetts

The Pierce administration's schemes to acquire Cuba

Fell apart after the leaking of the Ostend Manifesto

The Gadsden Purchase

Heightened competition between southern and northern railroad promoters over the choice of a transcontinental route

Stephen Douglas's indifference to slavery and desire for a northern railroad route

Led to the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, without regard for the consequences

The Kansas-Nebraska Act

Caused a tremendous northern protest and the birth of the Republican party

H. B. Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin

Persuaded millions of northerners and Europeans that slavery was evil and should be eliminated

The exercised of "popular sovereignty" in Kansas

Led to a "mini" prairie civil war between proslavery and antislavery factions

Buchanan's support for the proslavery Lecompton Constitution

Offended Senator Douglas and divided the Democratic party

The 1858 Illinois senate race

Made Lincoln a leading nation Republican figure and hurt Douglas's presidential chances

John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry

Convinced southerners that the North generally supported murder and slave rebellion

The splitting of the Democratic party in 1860

Shattered one of the last links between the sections and almost guaranteed Lincoln's victory in 1860

The election of Lincoln as president

moved South Carolina to declare immediate secession from the Union

The "lame-duck" period and Buchanan's indecisiveness

Paralyzed the North while the southern secessionist movement gained momentum

Lincoln's rejection of the Crittenden Compromise

Ended the last hopes of a peaceable sectional settlement and an end to secession

South Carolina's assault on Fort Sumter

Unified the North and made it determined to preserve the Union by military force

Lincoln's first call for troops to suppress the "rebellion"

Caused four more Upper South states to secede and join the Confederacy

Lincoln's careful use of moral suasion, politics, and military force

Kept the Border States in the Union

The large Northern human-resources advantage

Enabled Northern generals to wear down Southern armies, even at the cost of many lives

The North's naval blockade and industrial superiority

Eventually gave the Union a crucial economic advantage over the most agricultural South

The British aristocracy's sympathy with the South

Led the British government toward actions that aided the Confederacy and angered the Union

Americans minister C. F. Adams's diplomacy

Deterred the British and French from recognizing and aiding the Confederacy

Grant's victory at Vicksburg

Split the South in two and opened the way for Sherman's invasion of Georgia (v)

The class-biased unfairness of the Civil War draft

Led to riots by underprivileged Northern whites, especially Irish-Americans

Lincoln's belief that the Civil War emergency required drastic action

Led to temporary infringements on civil liberties and Congress's constitutional powers

Political dissent by Copperheads and jealous Republicans

Made it difficult for Lincoln to prosecute the war effectively

A series of Union military victories in late 1864

Ensured Lincoln's reelection and ended the South's last hope of achieving independence by political means

The assassination of Lincoln

Deprived the nation of experienced leadership during Reconstruction

Grant's Tennessee and Mississippi Rive Campaigns

Split the South in two and opened the way for Sherman's invasion of Georgia (tm)

The Battle of Bull Run

Led some Southerners to believe they would win an easy victory

The Battle of Antietam

Enabled Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation and blockaded British and French intervention

The Battle of Gettysburg

Ended the South's effort to win the war by aggressive invasion

Grant's final brutal campaign in Virginia

Forced Lee to surrender a Appomattox

The Emancipation Proclamation

Guaranteed that the South would fight to the end to try to save slavery

The growing Union manpower shortage in 1863

Helped lead to the enlistment of black fighting men in the Union Army

The South's military defeat in the Civil War

Destroyed the southern economy but strengthened Southern hatred of "Yankees"

The Freedmen's Bureau

Successfully educated former slaves but failed to provide much other assistance to them

The Black Codes of 1865

Imposed slavery like restrictions on blacks and angered the North

The election of ex-Confederates to Congress in 1865

Prompted Republicans to refuse to seat Southern delegations in Congress

Johnson's "swing around the circle" in the election of 1866

Weakened support for mild Reconstruction policies and helped elect overwhelming Republican majorities to Congress

Military Reconstruction and the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments

Forced all the Southern states to establish governments that upheld black voting and other civil rights

The "radical" Southern state Reconstruction governments

Engaged in some corruption but also enacted many valuable social reforms

The Ku Klux Klan

Intimidated black voters and tried to keep blacks "in their place"

The radical Republicans' hatred of Johnson

Provoked a politically motivated trail to remove the president from office

The whole Reconstruction era

Embittered white Southerners while doing little to really help blacks

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