Sensory transduction can involve which of the following?
all of the above
- inhibition of neurotransmitter release
- change in the flow of ions across the sensory membrane
- the production of a receptor potential
- a stimulus altering the permeability of a receptor membrane
Which ascending tract carries the sensations for fine touch and vibrations?
posterior (dorsal) column
The spinal tract that relays information concerning pain and temperature to the CNS is the
The spinal tract that relays information concerning crude touch and pressure to the CNS is the
The descending spinal tract that crosses the opposite side of the body within the cord is the _____ tract.
The descending spinal tract that crosses the opposite side of the body within the medulla oblongata is ____ tract.
Destruction of or damage to a lower motor neuron in the somatic nervous system produces?
flaccid paralysis of its muscle fibers (motor unit).
A brain injury to a patient results in facial paralysis. Which descending tract is likely affected?
Damage to the pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex would directly affect?
voluntary motor activity.
In the sympathetic nervous system, where are the preganglionic neurons located?
thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord.
Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region are called ____ ganglia.
are bundles of postganglionic fibers that innervate organs within the thoracic cavity.
During sympathetic activation, _____ occurs.
-elevated heart rate
-elevated blood pressure
-elevated blood glucose
Each of the following effects is associate with the action of postganglionic sympathetic fibers, EXCEPT
A) reduced circulation to the skin.
B) dilation of the pupils.
C) decreased heart rate.
D) increased blood flow to skeletal muscles.
E) increased sweat secretion.
decreased heart rate.
Postganglionic sympathetic axons can release the neurotransmitter _____ at their effector junctions.
- nitric oxide
Stimulation of α1 adrenergic receptors by norepinephrine results in
release of calcium ions from the intracellular stores.
An inhaler used to treat airway constriction in asthma or allergy might contain a drug that
activates β2 adrenergic receptors.
A certain drug decreases heart rate by blocking a receptor on cardiac pacemaker cells. This drug probably binds to _____ receptors.
Parasympathetic functions include all of the following,
- stimulation of urination.
- decrease in the rate of cardiac contraction.
- constriction of the pupils.
- stimulation of defecation.
EXCEPT dilation of airways
A decrease in the autonomic tone of the smooth muscle in a blood vessel would result in?
an increase in blood flow through a vessel
Which of the following would be an example of higher-level control of autonomic function?
increase in heart rate when you see a person you fear
Pre-ganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the?
lateral gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord