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Sensory transduction can involve which of the following?
all of the above

- inhibition of neurotransmitter release
- change in the flow of ions across the sensory membrane
- the production of a receptor potential
- a stimulus altering the permeability of a receptor membrane

A labeled line is

a link between a receptor and a cortical neuron.

_____ are the receptors in the aorta that monitor blood pressure.


Which ascending tract carries the sensations for fine touch and vibrations?

posterior (dorsal) column

The spinal tract that carries sensations from proprioceptors to the CNS is the


The spinal tract that relays information concerning pain and temperature to the CNS is the

lateral spinothalamic.

The spinal tract that relays information concerning crude touch and pressure to the CNS is the

anterior spinothalamic.

Thalamic neurons that project to the primary sensory cortex are _____ neurons.


The descending spinal tract that crosses the opposite side of the body within the cord is the _____ tract.

anterior corticospinal

The descending spinal tract that crosses the opposite side of the body within the medulla oblongata is ____ tract.

lateral corticospinal

Descending (motor) pathways always involve at least ____ motor neurons.


The pyramidal system provides

voluntary control over skeletal muscles

The corticospinal system is often referred to as the

pyramidal system

Axons of the corticobulbar tract terminate in the?

motor nuclei of cranial nerves

Destruction of or damage to a lower motor neuron in the somatic nervous system produces?

flaccid paralysis of its muscle fibers (motor unit).

A brain injury to a patient results in facial paralysis. Which descending tract is likely affected?

corticobulbar tract

Damage to the pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex would directly affect?

voluntary motor activity.

Upper motor neurons are located in the

precentral gyrus and the brain stem.

In the sympathetic nervous system, where are the preganglionic neurons located?

thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord.

Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region are called ____ ganglia.


Sympathetic nerves

are bundles of postganglionic fibers that innervate organs within the thoracic cavity.

During sympathetic activation, _____ occurs.

-elevated heart rate
-elevated blood pressure
-elevated blood glucose

Each of the following effects is associate with the action of postganglionic sympathetic fibers, EXCEPT
A) reduced circulation to the skin.
B) dilation of the pupils.
C) decreased heart rate.
D) increased blood flow to skeletal muscles.
E) increased sweat secretion.

decreased heart rate.

Splanchic nerves

consists of axons that synapse in collateral ganglia

Postganglionic sympathetic axons can release the neurotransmitter _____ at their effector junctions.

- acetylcholine
- norepinephrine
- ACh
- nitric oxide

Stimulation of α1 adrenergic receptors by norepinephrine results in

release of calcium ions from the intracellular stores.

An inhaler used to treat airway constriction in asthma or allergy might contain a drug that

activates β2 adrenergic receptors.

A certain drug decreases heart rate by blocking a receptor on cardiac pacemaker cells. This drug probably binds to _____ receptors.

beta-1 adrenergic

Ganglionic neurons in the suprarenal gland

release epinephrine into blood capillaries.

Parasympathetic functions include all of the following,

- stimulation of urination.
- decrease in the rate of cardiac contraction.
- constriction of the pupils.
- stimulation of defecation.
EXCEPT dilation of airways

Sweat glands contain ____ receptors.

muscarinic cholinergic

A decrease in the autonomic tone of the smooth muscle in a blood vessel would result in?

an increase in blood flow through a vessel

Which of the following would be an example of higher-level control of autonomic function?

increase in heart rate when you see a person you fear

Which of the following is essential for memory consolidation?


Conversion of a short-term memory to a long-term memory is called?

memory consolidation

The conscious state is maintained by

reticular activating system

Which neuron delivers sensations to the CNS?

third-order neuron

Pre-ganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the?

lateral gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord

Nicotine receptors

open chemically gated sodium ion channels

The basal nuclei?

provide background patterns of movement involved in voluntary motor activities

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