What is the equation for the chemical reaction that occurs for the transport of carbon dioxide as bicarbonate ions in blood?
T/F The three basic steps of respiration are pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, and cellular respiration
False-external, internal and cellular
T/F For inhalation to occur, air pressure in the alveoli must be less than atmospheric pressure; for exhalation to occur, air pressure in the alveoli must be greater than atmospheric pressure
What structural changes occur from primary bronchi to terminal bronchioles?
the mucous membrane changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium to nonciliated simple cuboidal epithelium, the amount of smooth muscle increases, incomplete rings of cartilage disappear
What would cause oxygen to dissociate more readily from hemoglobin?
low Po2, hypercapnia, low levels of BPG (2,3-bisphosphoglycerate)
T/F Normal exhalation during quiet breathing is an active process involving intensive muscle contraction?
T/F Air flow during breathing is due to a pressure gradient between the lungs and the atmospheric air?
T/F During normal breathing, the pressure between the two pleural layers (intrapleural pressure) is always subatmospheric?
What factors affect the rate of external respiration?
Partial pressure differences of gases, surface area for gas exchange, diffusion distance, solubility and molecular weight of the gases
The most important factor in determining the percent oxygen saturation of hemoglobin is?
the partial pressure of oxygen
T/F Respiratory rate increases during the initial onset of exercise due to input to the inspiratory area from propriceptors
T/F Sudden severe pain causes brief apnea, while prolonged somatic pain causes an increase in respiratory rate
additional amount of air inhaled beyond tidal volume when taking a very deep breath
inspiratory reserve volume
provides a medical and legal tool for determining if a baby was born dead or died after birth
functions as a passageway for air and food, provides a resonating chamber for speech sounds, and houses the tonsils
functions in warming, moistening, and filtering air; receives olfactory stimuli; is a resonating chamber for sound
simple squamous epithelial cells that form a continuous lining of the alveolar wall; sites of gas exchange
type I Alveolar cells
hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction to divert pulmonary blood from poorly ventilated to well-ventilated regions of the lungs
the lower the amount of oxyhemoglobin, the higher the carbon dioxide-carrying capacity of the blood
active during normal inhalation; sends nerve impulses to external intercostals and diaphragm
sends stimulatory impulses to inspiratory area that activate it and prolong inhalation
as acidity increases, the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen decreases and oxygen dissociates more readily from hemoglobin; shifts oxygen-dissociation curve to the right
pressure of a gas in a closed container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container
transmits inhibitory impulses to turn off the inspiratory area before the lungs become too full of air
the quantity of a gas that dissolves in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility