Oxygen in blood is carried primarily in the form of?
Carbon dioxide is carried as?
dissolved CO2 and carbaminohemoglobin and bicarbonate ion
What is the equation for the chemical reaction that occurs for the transport of carbon dioxide as bicarbonate ions in blood?
T/F The three basic steps of respiration are pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, and cellular respiration
False-external, internal and cellular
T/F For inhalation to occur, air pressure in the alveoli must be less than atmospheric pressure; for exhalation to occur, air pressure in the alveoli must be greater than atmospheric pressure
What structural changes occur from primary bronchi to terminal bronchioles?
the mucous membrane changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium to nonciliated simple cuboidal epithelium, the amount of smooth muscle increases, incomplete rings of cartilage disappear
What would cause oxygen to dissociate more readily from hemoglobin?
low Po2, hypercapnia, low levels of BPG (2,3-bisphosphoglycerate)
T/F Normal exhalation during quiet breathing is an active process involving intensive muscle contraction?
T/F Passive exhalation results from elastic recoil of the chest wall and lungs?
T/F Air flow during breathing is due to a pressure gradient between the lungs and the atmospheric air?
T/F During normal breathing, the pressure between the two pleural layers (intrapleural pressure) is always subatmospheric?
T/F Surface tension of alveolar fluid facilitates inhalation?
What factors affect the rate of external respiration?
Partial pressure differences of gases, surface area for gas exchange, diffusion distance, solubility and molecular weight of the gases
The most important factor in determining the percent oxygen saturation of hemoglobin is?
the partial pressure of oxygen
T/F Central chemoreceptors are stimulated by changes in Pco2, H+, and Po2
T/F Respiratory rate increases during the initial onset of exercise due to input to the inspiratory area from propriceptors
T/F When baroreceptors in the lungs are stimulated, the expiratory area is activated
T/F Stimulation of the limbic system can result in excitation of the inspiratory area
T/F Sudden severe pain causes brief apnea, while prolonged somatic pain causes an increase in respiratory rate
T/F The respiratory rate increases during fever
Total volume of air inhaled and exhaled each minute
tidal volume+inspiratory reserve volume+expiratory reserve volume
additional amount of air inhaled beyond tidal volume when taking a very deep breath
inspiratory reserve volume
residual volume+expiratory reserve volume
functional residual capacity
amount of air remaining in lungs after expiratory reserve volume is expelled
tidal volume+inspiratory reserve volume
vital capacity+residual volume
total lung capacity
volume of air in one breath
amount of air exhaled in forced exhalation following a normal exhalation
expiratory reserve volume
provides a medical and legal tool for determining if a baby was born dead or died after birth
functions as a passageway for air and food, provides a resonating chamber for speech sounds, and houses the tonsils
site of external respiration
connects the laryngopharynx with the trachea; houses the vocal cords
serous membrane that surrounds the lungs
functions in warming, moistening, and filtering air; receives olfactory stimuli; is a resonating chamber for sound
simple squamous epithelial cells that form a continuous lining of the alveolar wall; sites of gas exchange
type I Alveolar cells
forms anterior wall of the larynx
a tubular passageway for air connecting the larynx to the bronchi
secrete alveolar fluid and surfactant
type II Alveolar Cells
forms inferior wall of larynx; landmark for tracheotomy
prevents food or fluid from entering the airways
air passageways entering the lungs
ridge covered by a sensitive mucous membrane; irritation triggers cough reflex
a deficiency of oxygen at tissue level
above normal partial pressure of carbon dioxide
normal quiet breathing
deep, abdominal breathing
the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall can be expanded
hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction to divert pulmonary blood from poorly ventilated to well-ventilated regions of the lungs
absence of breathing
rapid and deep breathing
shallow, chest breathing
prevents excessive inflation of the lungs
inflation (Hering-Breuer reflex)
the lower the amount of oxyhemoglobin, the higher the carbon dioxide-carrying capacity of the blood
controls the basic rhythm of respiration
medullary rhythmicity area
active during normal inhalation; sends nerve impulses to external intercostals and diaphragm
sends stimulatory impulses to inspiratory area that activate it and prolong inhalation
as acidity increases, the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen decreases and oxygen dissociates more readily from hemoglobin; shifts oxygen-dissociation curve to the right
active during forceful exhalation
pressure of a gas in a closed container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container
transmits inhibitory impulses to turn off the inspiratory area before the lungs become too full of air
the quantity of a gas that dissolves in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility
relates to the partial pressure of a gas in a mixture of gases whereby each gas in a mixture exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present