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Only ________ muscle cells are always
multinucleated.

skeletal

Claudication might more simply be called
________.

limping

The end of the muscle that typically moves
when a muscle contracts is called the ________.

insertion

In the synaptic cleft of a neuromuscular
junction, an enzyme called ________ is always present.

acetylcholinesterase

The time in which cross bridges are active is called the period of ________.

contraction

________ (color) fibers are slow (oxidative) fibers.

red

Only ________ muscle cells commonly branch.

cardiac

A smooth, sustained contraction is called
________.

tetanus

The outer membrane around the muscle cel or fiber is called the _______, while the tunnel like infoldings of the outer membrane form part of the triad are called the _________.

Sarcolemma; transverse tubules

The region of a sarcomere where actin and
myosin overlap is:

a band

Movement allowed in a pivot joint is known as:

rotation

The universal loss of mass seen in the
skeleton, which begins about the age of 40:

is caused by incomplete osteon formation and mineralization.

Turning the foot medially at the ankle would
be called ________

inversion

Moving your jaw forward, causing an underbite, is called ________.

protrusion

The joint between the frontal and parietal bones is called a ________ joint

suture

Using the functional classification, a freely movable joint would be called a ________ joint.Answer: diarthrosis

diarthroses

Synovial joints have five major features. What
are they?

articular cartilage, a joint cavity, an articular capsule, synovial fluid, and reinforcing ligamanets

Describe a typical synovial joint.

Answer: The ends of each bone are covered with hyaline cartilage that is continuous with thesynovial membrane enclosing the joint. Synovial fluid fills the space between the articularcartilage. Outside the synovial membrane there is a very tough, fibrous capsule that prevents thesynovial membrane from bulging out as pressure is applied to the ends of the bones.

Why is muscle tone the most important stabilizing factor for most joints?

Answer: Ligaments can stretch and reduce stability. Articular surfaces shape hurt joint stability. Muscle tendons are kept stretched;tense at all times by the tone of their muscle.

What are caveoli?

Answer: Folds on the surface of smooth muscle cells that correspond to T tubules in skeletal muscle cells

Briefly, what causes rigor mortis?

Answer: When we die, all of our ATP is used up and can't be replaced.ATP is what controls cross bridge detachment and calcium active transport. calcium leakagefrom the sarcoplasmic reticulum causes attachment of cross bridges, and lack of ATP preventsdetachments

0) Compare red and white muscles relative to their speed of action and endurance.

Answer: Red muscles: slow (oxidative) rate and fatigue resistance/whereas white muscle: fast (oxidative) rate and fatigue easily.

Define physiologic muscle fatigue.

Answer: Fatigue occurs when ATP production fails to keep pace with ATP use even though the musclestill receives stimuli

A long
-
distance runner is about to enter a 5
-
mile race. Beforehand, he spends several minuteswarming up. During the warm
-
up period, the phenomenon of treppe is occurring in body muscles being used. What is treppe and why does it occur?

Answer: Treppe is the staircase phenomenon in which muscles increase their strength of contraction dueto increased availability of calcium. Additionally, the increased warmth due to activity causesan increase in the efficiency of muscle enzyme systems.

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