*Immune SYSTEM

81 terms by mandygro92 

Ready to study?
Start with Flashcards

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?

they are composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens (also called human leukocyte associated, or HLA, antigens) are unique to each person's body cells. These self-antigens aid in the detection of foreign invaders. MHC class II antigens are found on

B-lymphocytes and some T-lymphocytes
and antigen-presenting cells

Which statement is true about T cells?

Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2

The antigenic determinant of a foreign substance is the

epitope

Antibody functions include all of the following except

cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood cell types are properly matched

The anaphylactic reaction is a(n) __________ allergic reaction.

immediate hypersensitivity

Which of the following is true about the number of binding sites per functional antibody unit?

IgM has ten binding sites.

. Which of the following is a localized, nonspecific response to infection?

inflammation

Select the correct statement about complement.

A specific immune mechanism is often involved in directing complement to its target.

T lymphocytes develop in the bone marrow and attain immunologic competency in the

thymus

. Which of the following is not a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disease?

a second exposure to an allergen

This is the predominant Ig class in body secretions; hence it is called the "secretory antibody.

IgA

Which type of antibodies can cross the placenta and confer passive immunity on the fetus/neonate?

IgG

Occurring as a pentamer, this is the first antibody to be produced.

IgM

Which type of antibodies are involved in allergic reactions?

IgE

Select the correct statement about antigens.

One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may thus cause the formation of more than one antibody

The formation of antigen-antibody complexes might trigger the complement cascade at C1. This is called the

classical pathway

The primary immune response

has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells

When a macrophage presents antigen to a lymphocyte, it does so in context of __________.

MHC

Select the correct statement about the role of the nervous system in regulating the immune response.

Many immune cells have receptors for neurotransmitters. and The ability of one's state of mind to influence immune function is now accepted as proven by the medical community.

Polio vaccine confers __________ on the subject.

active immunity

C3b molecules coat a microorganism and roughen its surface, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytose it. The phenomenon is called

opsonization

__________ T-cells destroy cells infected with virus.

cytotoxin

Plasma cells are derived from

B-lymphocytes

Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called

haptens

Although we mostly associate eosinophil function with allergic reactions, the cell was originally evolved to deal, most effectively, with

helminth infections

The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by

vasodialation

The chief antibody-mediated mechanism used against cellular antigens, such as bacteria, is

complement fixation

Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?

replaces injured tissues with connective tissue

Select the correct statement about phagocytic cells.

Neutrophils may destroy themselves when they phagocytize large quantities of a foreign substance.

Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?

type 11 diabetes

. ________ are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.

Cytokineses

. Innate immune system defenses include

phagocytes

Select the correct statement about inflammation.

Exudate is the cause of localized edema

. B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by

producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells.

Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?

phagocytes

Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?

passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus

The antibody molecule is held together by ____ bonds.

disulfide

Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.

Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of specific immunity that use antibodies.

Which of the following is not a type of T cell?

antigenic

Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except
a. rabies.
b. juvenile diabetes.
c. pregnancy.
d. hepatitis.

pregnancy

Natural killer (NK) cells

can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated.

Helper T cells

function in the adaptive immune system activation.

B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the

bone marrow

The system that recognizes foreign molecules and acts to immobilize, neutralize, or destroy them is the

immune system

______ determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system be able to recognize and resist.

the type of antigen

. Interferons

interfere with viral replication within cells.

The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called

chemotaxis.

Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?

reactivity with an antibody

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) trigger the release of ________ to attract white blood cells to the scene.

cytokines

. ________ predominate at the sites of chronic infections.

Macrophages

Phagocyte mobilization involves

mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas.

Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of the immune system by

natural killer cells.

Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.

Antibodies may directly destroy "invaders".

The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the

cytotoxic cells.

Fever

production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting.

Select the correct statement about the prevention of immune attack on "self".

Tolerance is developed during fetal life

Interleukin ________ inhibits or turns down the immune response.

10

Cytotoxic T cells

are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells.

Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?

It is specific for a given organ.

Antibodies and complement fixation mediate delayed hypersensitivity reactions.

FALSE

Immune responses are sometimes not beneficial to the body

TRUE

. Some immunocompetent cells never be called to duty during our lifetime.

TRUE

The soluble proteins secreted by plasma cells are called antibodies.

TRUE

Autoimmune diseases are more common in men than women.

FALSE

The B lymphocyte population is capable of producing antibodies against at least 106 different antigens.

TRUE

Perforins are cytolytic molecules used by NK cells.

TRUE

Antigens can be complete or incomplete

TRUE

Tolerance for self-antigens is abnormal.

FALSE

The directional movement of cells in response to chemicals is called chemotaxis.

TRUE

Adaptive immunity is provided only by lymphocytes that secrete antibodies.

FALSE

Atopy is an inherited tendency to spontaneously develop immediate (type I) allergies to certain environmental antigens.

TRUE

The mechanism of the "lethal hit" of cytotoxic T cells involves a protein called perforin.

TRUE

Fever is seldom beneficial because it speeds up the cellular metabolic rate and will not allow antigen-antibody reactions to occur.

FALSE

cellular ingestion and destruction of particulate matter is called phagocytosis

TRUE

Monoclonal antibodies can be specific for several antigenic determinants

FALSE

Substances capable of triggering the adaptive immune system and provoking an immune response are called antigens.

FALSE

Somatic recombination by B cells allows each B cell to form its own unique antibody genes.

FALSE

The respiratory burst produced by some macrophages releases free radicals.

TRUE

A transfusion reaction is a subacute hypersensitivity to foreign red blood cells.

TRUE

During fetal development, all lymphocytes that do not react to self-antigens are destroyed.

FALSE

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set