Final

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110 terms

Comprehension

The degree to which individuals understand what they have read or heard; the ability to grasp the meaning of a verbal or nonverbal message.

Functional illiteracy

The lack of fundamental education skills needed by adults to read, write, or comprehend information to function effectively in today's society; the inability to read well enough to understand and interpret written information for use as intended.

Health literacy

refers to how well an individual can read, interpret, and comprehend health information for maintaining an optimal level of wellness.

Illiterate

The total inability of adults to read, write, or comprehend information or whose reading and writing skills are at or below the fourth grade level.

Literacy

The ability of adults to read, understand, and interpret information written at the eighth grade level or above. An umbrella term used to describe socially required and expected reading and writing abilities; the relative ability of persons to use printed and written material commonly encountered in daily life.

Literate

The ability to write and read, understand, and interpret information written at the eighth-grade level or above.

Low literacy

the ability of adults to read, write, and comprehend information between the fifth- and the eight-grade level of difficulty. Aka marginally literate

Numeracy

The ability to read and interpret numbers.

Readability

The level of reading difficulty at which printed teaching tools are written. A measure of those elements in a given text of printed material that influence with what degree of success a group of readers will be able to read and understand the information; the ease, or, conversely, the difficulty, with which a person can understand or comprehend the style of writing of a selected printed passage.

Reading

The process of transforming letters into words and being able to pronounce them correctly.

Acculturation

Describes an individual's adaptation to the customs, values, beliefs, and behaviors of a new country or culture.

Assimilation

The willingness of a person emigrating to a new culture to gradually adopt and incorporate the characteristics of the prevailing culture.

Cultural awareness

The process of becoming sensitive to the interactions with other cultural groups by examining one's biases and prejudices toward others of another culture or ethnic background.

Cultural competence

The ability to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of another person's culture and accept and respect cultural differences by adapting interventions to be congruent with that specific culture when delivering care.

Cultural diversity

interacting with others who represent different cultures from one's own culture.

Cultural relativism

The values and behaviors every human group assigns to its conventions, which arise out of its own historical background and can only be accurately interpreted and understood in the light of that group's cultural worldview.

Culture

A complex concept that is an integral part of each person's life and includes knowledge, beliefs, values, morals, customs, traditions, and habits acquired by the members of a society.

Ethnic group

A population of people, also referred to as a subculture, that has different experiences from those of the dominant culture.

Ethnocentrism

A concept in which the belief is held that one's own culture is superior and all other cultures are less sophisticated.

Gender bias

A preconceived notion about the abilities of women and men that prevent individuals from pursuing their own interests and achieving their potentials.

Gender gap

The behavioral and biological differences between males and females.

Gender-related cognitive abilities

A comparison between the sexes as to how males and females act, react, and perform in situations affecting every sphere of life as a result of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.

Gender-related personality behaviors

The observed differences between the sexes in personality and affective behaviors thought to be largely determined by culture, but to some extent is a result of interaction between environment and heredity.

Ideology

Thoughts, attitudes, and beliefs that reflect the social needs and desires of an individual or ethno cultural group.

Poverty circle (cycle of poverty)

A process whereby parents who are low income and educational level produce children of low income and educational attainment, who grow up and repeat the process with their own children, generation after generation are born into poverty by many factors such as poor health care, limited resources, family stress, and low-paying jobs.

Primary characteristics of culture

Factors that influence an individual's identification with an ethnic group and that cause the individual to share a group's worldview such as nationality, race, color, gender, age, and religious affiliation.

Secondary characteristics of culture

Factors that influence an individual's identification with an ethnic group and that cause the individual to share a group's worldview, such as SES, physical characteristics, educational status, occupational status, and place of residence.

Socioeconomic status

Variation in health status, health behavior, or learning abilities among individuals of different social and economic levels.

Subculture

An ethnocultural group of people who have experiences different from those of the dominant culture.

Assistive technology

technological tools available for people with disabilities that provide access to education, employment, recreation, and communication opportunities that allow them to live as independently as possible.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

A disorder of children with prominent attention difficulties as demonstrated by inattention and impulsivity that are signs of developmentally inappropriate behavior.

Augmentative and alternative communication

Devices such as the computer, that allow people who are unable to speak or whose speech is difficult to understand to be able to communicate with others, which has added a whole new dimension and quality to their lives.

Developmental disability

A disorder that manifests itself during the developmental period when a child demonstrates subaverage general intellectual functioning with concurrent deficits in adaptive behaviors. Sometimes referred to as mental retardation or developmental delay.

Disability

Inability to perform some key life functions; often used interchangeable with the term functional limitation.

Dysarthria

Difficulty with voluntary muscle control of speech due to damage to the CNS or PNS that controls muscles essential to speaking and swallowing.

Expressive aphasia

an absence or impairment of the ability to communicate through speech or writing due to a dysfunction in the Broca's ares of the brain, which is the center of the cortex that controls motor abilities.

Habilitation

Includes all the activities and interactions that enable individuals with a disability to develop new abilities to achieve their maximum potential.

Hearing impairment

A complete loss or a reduction in sensitivity to sounds by persons who are deaf or hard of hearing.

Input disabilities

A general category of learning disability that refers to the process of receiving and recording information in the brain, which includes visual, auditory, perceptual, and integrative processing such as dyslexia and short and long term memory disorders.

Learning disabilities

A generic term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties with learning. Inattention and impulsivity are signs indicating developmentally inappropriate behavior.

Output disabilities

A general category of learning disability that refers to orally responding and performing physical tasks, which include language and motor disorders.

Receptive aphasia

An absence or impairment of the ability to comprehend what is read or heard due to a dysfunction in the Wernicke's area of the brain which controls sensory abilities. The person is unable to understand the significance of the spoken word and is unable to communicate verbally.

Rehabilitation

The relearning of previous skills which often requires an adjustment to altered functional abilities and altered lifestyle.

Sensory deficits

A category of common physical disabilities that includes in particular hearing and visual impairments.

Visual impairment

A reduction or complete loss of vision due to infection, accident, poisoning, or congenital degeneration of the eyes.

Affective domain

one of the three domains in the taxonomy of behavioral objectives; deals with the attitudes, values, and beliefs.

Augmented feedback

an opinion or conveyance of a message through oral or body language by the teacher to the learner about how well he or she performed a psychomotor skill.

Behavioral objectives

intended outcomes of the educational process that are action oriented rather than content oriented and learner centered rather than teacher centered.

Cognitive domain

one of three domains in the taxonomy of behavioral objectives; deals with aspects of behavior focusing on the way in which someone thinks in acquiring facts, concepts, principles, etc.

Distributed practice

Learning information over successive periods of time, which is much more effective for remembering facts and forging memories than massed practice or cramming which does not allow for long-term recall of information

Educational objectives

intended outcomes of the educational process that are in reference to an aspect of a program or a total program of study that are content oriented and teacher centered.

Goal

A desirable outcome to be achieved by the learner at the end of the teaching-learning process; global, more future oriented and long term in nature

Intrinsic feedback

A response that is generated within the self, giving learners a sense or a feel for how they have performed; often used in relation to a psychomotor skill performance.

Learning contract

A mutually agreed-on specific plan of action between the learner and educator clearly defining the specific behavioral objectives and predetermined goal to be achieved as a result of instruction.

Learning curve

A record of an individual's improvement in psychomotor skill development made by measuring his or her ability at different stages during a specific time period, which includes 6 stages: negligible progress, increasing gains, plateau, renewed gains, and approach to limit.

Massed practice

learning information all at once, which is much less effective for remembering facts than learning information over successive periods of time, similar to cramming.

Objective

A single, specific, unidimensional behavior that is short term in nature, which should be achievable at the conclusion of one teaching session or within a matter of a few days following a series of teaching sessions.

Psychomotor domain

one of three domains in the taxonomy of behavioral objectives which is concerned with the physical activities of the body, such as coordination, reaction time, and muscular control, related to the acquisition of a skill or task.

Selective attention

The process of recognizing and selecting appropriate or inappropriate stimuli.

Subobjectives

A specific statement of a short-term behavior that is written to reflect an aspect of the main objective leading to the achievement of the primary objective.

Taxonomy

A form of hierarchical classification of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains of behaviors according to their degree or level or complexity.

Teaching plan

Overall blueprint or outline for instruction clearly defining the relationship between the essential components of behavioral objectives, instructional content, teaching methods, and tools, time frame for teaching, and methods of evaluation that fit together in a logical pattern of flow to achieve a predetermined goal.

Transfer of learning

The effects of learning one skill on the subsequent performance of another related skill. Includes self-transfer, near transfer, and far transfer.

Instructional strategy

the overall plan for a teaching-learning experience that involves the use of one or several methods of instruction to achieve the desired learning outcomes.

Instructional method

the way information is taught that brings the learner into contact with what is to be learned. EX: lecture, group discussion, one-to-one instruction

Lecture

can be defined as a highly structured method by which the teacher verbally transmits information directly to groups of learners for the purpose of instruction. Oldest and most often used approaches to teaching. An ideal way to provide foundational background information as a basis for subsequent group discussions.

Group discussion

a method of teaching whereby learners get together to exchange information, feelings, and opinions with one another and with the teacher.

One-to-one instruction

A common instructional method for exchange of information whereby the teacher delivers individual verbal instructional of learning activities in a format designed specifically to meet the needs of a particular learner.

Demonstration

A instructional method by which the learner is shown by the teacher how to perform a particular psychomotor skill

Gaming

An instructional method requiring the learner to participate in a competitive activity with preset rules.

Role playing

A method of instruction by which learners participate in an unrehearsed dramatization, acting out an assigned part of a character as they think the character would act in reality.

Role modeling

The use of self as a role model often overlooked as an instructional method, whereby the learner acquires new behaviors and social roles by identification with the role model.

Self-instruction

A method of instruction used by a teacher to provide or design teaching materials and activities that guide the learner in independently achieving the objectives of learning.

Skill inoculation

the opportunity for repeated practice of a behavioral task.

Instructional setting

A situation or area in which health teaching takes place as classified on the basis of what relationship health education has to the primary function of an organization, agency, or instruction in which the teaching occurs.

Healthcare setting

one of three classifications of instructional settings, in which the delivery of health care is the primary or sole function of an institution, organization, or agency. Examples: hospitals, visiting nurse associations, public health departments, outpatient clinics, physicians offices, nurse-managed centers.

Healthcare-related setting

one of three classifications of institutional settings, in which healthcare-related services are offered as a complementary function of a quasi-health agency. Examples: American heart association, American cancer society, etc.

Non-healthcare setting

one of three classifications of instructional settings in which health care is an incidental or supportive function of an organization, such as a business, industry, and school system.

Instructional materials

The resources or vehicles used to help communicate information, which include both print and nonprint media, to aid teaching and learning by stimulating the various senses, such as vision and hearing. These are intended to supplement, not replace, actual teaching.

Delivery system

The physical form of instructional materials, including durable equipment used to present these materials, such as film and projectors, audiotapes, and tape players and computer programs and computers.

Realia

The most concrete form of stimuli that can be used to deliver information. A real person or a model being used to demonstrate a procedure such as breast self-examination.

Illusionary representations

A category of instructional materials that depict realism, such as dimensionality. Examples: photographs, drawings, audiotapes. They depend on imagination to fill in the gaps and offer the learner experiences that simulate reality.

Symbolic representations

Numbers and words, symbols written and spoken to convey ideas or represent objects, which are the most common forms of communication yet are the most abstract types of messages.

Replica

A facsimile constructed to scale that resembles the features or substance of the original object. It may be examined or manipulated by the learner to get an idea of how something works.

Analogue

A type of model that uses analogy to explain something by comparing it to something else.

Symbol

A type of model that conveys a message to the learner through the use of abstract constructs, like words that stand for the real thing. Cartoons and printed materials are examples of symbolic forms of a message.

Audiovisual materials

Non-print instructional media that can influence all three domains of learning and stimulate the senses of hearing and/or sight to help convey the message to the learner. 5 major types: projected, audio, video, telecommunications, and computer formats.

Asynchronous

A message that can be sent via the computer at the convenience of the sender and the message will be read when the receiver is online and ready to read it; messages that can be sent and responded to any time, day or night.

Blogs

one of the newest forms of online communication, also known as web logs or web diaries, is an increasingly popular mechanism for individuals to share information and/or experiences about a given topic that include images, media objects, and links allowing for public responses.

Computer literacy

The ability to use the necessary hardware and software to meet the needs for information.

Consumer informatics

A discipline that analyzes consumers' needs for information, studies and implements methods of making information accessible to consumers, and models and integrates consumer preferences into medical information systems

Digital divide

The gap between those individuals who have access to information technology resources and those who do not.

Distance learning

A flexible telecommunications method of instruction using video or computer technology to transmit live, online, or taped messages directly between the instructor and the learner, who are separated from one another by time and/or location.

E-learning

[electronic learning] professional development and training organizations have capitalized on by using the power of computer technology to provide learning solutions for workforce training. It involves the use of technology-based tools and processes to provide for customized learning anytime or anywhere.

Information Age

The present period of time, in which sweeping advances in computer and information technology have transformed the economic , social, and cultural life of society.

Information literacy

The ability to access, evaluate, organize, and use information from a variety of sources.

Internet

A huge global computer network, of which the WWW is a component, established to allow transfer of information from one computer to another. It provides a diverse range of services used to deliver information to large numbers of people and to enable people to communicate with one another, such as email, real-time chat, or discussion groups.

M-learning

Stands for mobile learning, which is a new strategy that takes advantage of the many wireless, portable, and handheld devices such as MP3 players, that can access course materials, search the web, listen to lectures, and record experiences and assignments.

World Wide Web

A computer network of information servers around the world that are connected to the Internet; it is technology-based educational resource that was created as a virtual space for the display of information.

Content evaluation

A systematic assessment taking place immediately after the learning experience to determine the degree to which learners have acquired the knowledge or skills taught during a teaching-learning session.

Evaluation

A systematic and continuous process by which the significance of something is judged; the process of collecting and using information to determine what has been accomplished and how well it has been accomplished to guide decision making.

Evaluation research

Scientific inquiry applied to a specific program or activity to determine processes, outcomes, and/or their relationship

Evidence based practice

The conscientious use of current best evidence in making decisions about client care, most EBP models gather evidence from systematic reviews of clinically relevant, randomized controlled trials upon which to base practice decisions, especially about treatment.

External evidence

Evidence derived from research that is generalizable beyond a particular study setting or sample.

Impact evaluation

The process of assessing outcomes or effects of an educational activity that extend beyond the activity itself to address organizational and/or societal effects.

Internal evidence

Evidence that is not generated from research but is appropriate for use when, for example, it is derived from a systematically conducted experiment.

Outcome evaluation

Systematic assessment of the degree to which individuals have learned or objectives have been met as a result of education intervention.

Practice based evidence

Evidence derived from practice rather than from research, such as the results of a systematically conducted evaluation, clients' responses to care delivered on the basis of clinical expertise, or a systematically conducted quality improvement project.

Process evaluation

A systematic and continuous assessment of success of the teaching process made during the implementation of materials, methods, and activities to control, ensure, or improve the quality of performance in delivery of an educational program.

Program evaluation

A systematic assessment to determine that extent to which all activities for an entire department or programs over a specified time period have accomplished the goals originally established.

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