personality 2

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temperament

___ is inherited personality traits present at birth

genetically

that fact that temperaments are present early in life supports the idea that they are ___ based

emotionality

of the big five personality traits, neuroticism relates to the ____/avoidance temperament

activity

of the big five personality traits, extraversion relates to the ____/approach temperament

sociability

of the big five personality traits, agreeableness relates to the ____ temperament

intelligence

of the big five personality traits, openness relates to the _____ temperament

impulsivity

of the big five personality traits, conscientiousness relates to the ______ temperament

environmental twin

the way to tell if temperaments were caused by the genetics or the environment would be by seeing if there was a lack of time for ___ influences and conducting ___ studies

environments

people gravitate to ____ that suit their interests and let them be who they are, but maybe those (same word) even induce people to develop more of what led them there

nonshared environmental

the ____ ____ effect is that the environment seems to affect personality mostly by making twins different: different friends, siblings in families develop roles that play off each other

high

when correlations between MZ twins on temperament are ___, it means temperaments are more genetically based

higher

self reports of twins on the big 5 personality/temperaments show that MZ twins have ___ correlations than DZ twins. there are similar correlations with observer reports

twin study

the ___ ___ method is a method to study widely behavioral genetics which take advantage of two unusual reproductive events, which produce two types of twins

activity level

one dimension of individual differences is ___ ___: the person's overall output of energy. Vigor is intensity, tempo is its speed. People high in this prefer high intensity, fast paced activities and low is opposite

sociability

one dimension of individual differences is ___: the tendency to prefer being with other people rather than being alone

emotionality

one dimension of individual differences is ___: the tendency to become emotionally aroused - easily and intensely - in upsetting situations

genetically environmentally

In adoption studies, if child correlates with their biological parents, the trait is ___ based but if they correlate with their adopted parents, it is ____ based

sociobiological

the _____ theory is the study of the biological basis of social behavior

evolution

adaption shows that social interaction patterns are products of ____ and were retained genetically because at some point in the prehistory they conferred an adaptive advantage

inclusive fitness

____ ___ is the idea that genes are helped into the next generation by anything that helps your part of the gene pool reproduce

altruism

____ is acting for the welfare of others, to the point of sacrificing one's own wellbeing for someone else. Helps to still pass on your genetic makeup

reciprocal altruism

___ ___ is when one person helps the other in the expectation that the help will be returned

attraction

the ____ theory states that a gene survives by an action that brings about reproduction of any organism in which copies of the gene exists

assortative

____ mating is the idea that people chose mates on the basis of particular characteristics

females

____ have greater investment in offspring, generate few offspring, are choosier in mate selection, wait for the best mate, look for wealth, power, and status and view mate as a success object

males

___ have less investment in offspring, generate more offspring, less discriminating in mate selection, maximize sexual opportunities, look for fertility, youth, and fitness, and view mates as sex objects

females

_____ get jealous because of emotional bonds - limited to carry offspring, need those resources from the mate more than sex once baby is born. more jealous about emotional bonds than sex

males

____ get jealous because of sexual infidelity - they want to make sure the baby is theirs

generations

an objection to evolutionary psychology is that it takes many _____ to determine whether a behavior has contributed to evolutionary fitness

adaptive

an objection to evolutionary psychology is that a specific behavior cannot be ____ for all environments/sexes/ages/species

strategic

an objection to evolutionary psychology is that it does not explain the development of new ___ behavior or maintenance of successful (same word) environment

blank

an objection to evolutionary psychology is the social science model, stating we are all ____ slates

dysfunctional

an objection to evolutionary psychology is that there are ____ behaviors in cultures like murder and suicide

biological

____ evolution is a very slow process that occurs over millennia. prepared us to live in a world very different from he one we live in now

cultural

___ evolution is a faster evolutionary process, there are problems that emerge when behavioral tendencies that have been built as part of human nature conflict with this

genetics

an objection to evolutionary psychology is that there has been little focus on behavioral _____

depression

___ has 3 genotypes that react differently to rejection - 1 reacts very extremely (genotype 3)

introverts

according to Eysenck's biological processes and personality, ____ have a higher baseline and higher cortical arousal, therefore they avoid social interaction because it gets them overstimulated

extroverts

according to Eysenck's biological processes and personality, _____ have a lower baseline and lower cortical arousal, therefore seek stimulation to bring up their arousal

behavioral activation system

the ___ ___ ___ is in the left prefrontal lobe and is the reward seeking system

behavioral activation system

the ___ ___ ___ regulates positive emotions and is only activated when people pursue something they want

approach

people with reactive ___ systems are highly sensitive to incentives or cues of good things about to happen

dopamine

_____ is a neurotransmitter that is high in the behavioral activation system. Higher amounts are related to positive emotionality, novelty seeking and extraversion

dopamine

bursts of ___ happen in response to reward increases, increasing the learning of approach responses and dips after nonreward increases the learning of avoidance responses. May be more performance than actual learning, mainly about motivation

behavioral inhibition system

the ____ ___ ___ is in the right prefrontal lobe and is known as the avoidance system

behavioral inhibition system

the ___ ___ ___ regulates negative emotions, punishment and danger. is activated when people need to avoid something they fear. it inhibits movement. related to learning negative outcomes

behavioral inhibition system

if you have an active ___ ___ ___ you will be more avoidant and fearful

gaba serotonin norepinephrine

the neurotransmitters involved in the behavioral inhibition system are ____ (linked to neuroticism and panic disorders), ___, and _____ (produced in response to stress)

less

people high in neuroticism have ___ gray matter in the left cortex than people low in neuroticism. Stronger in males than females

less

depressed people have ____ gray matter in the amygdala. seems to happen before the onset of depression

extroverts

for ____ the left cortex responds to positive emotions more than right cortex response to negative emotions

introverts

for ___ the right cortex responds to negative emotions more than left cortex responds to positive emotions

high

____ sensation seekers are in search of new, varied, and exciting experiences. they more likely to use drugs, increase alcohol use over time, do high risks sports, engage in risky antisocial behaviors

high

people ____ in sensation seeking should functions well in overstimulating conditions but they may display antisocial qualities in situation that are less demanding

low

people ___ in sensation seeking are better adapted to most circumstances of life, but they may shut down psychological when things get too intense

impulsive unsocialized sensation seeking

___ ___ ___ ___ is the capacity (or lack there of) to inhibit behavior in service of social adaption

effortful control

__ __ is being focused and restrained, and implies planfulness and awareness of others' needs

monoamine oxidase

____ ___ helps regulate several neurotransmitters. Its levels are related to personality traits such as sensation seeking, novelty seeking, dominance, aggression, drinking and driving and impulsivity

serotonin

lower levels of ___ lead to fighting and assault, domestic violence, and impulsive aggression. higher levels lead to higher conscientiousness

behavioral inhibition system

anxiety has high __ ___ __ functioning. the avoidance system creates anxiety in the presence of cues and impending punishment. a person with a very sensitive threat system will experience anxiety easily and frequently

behavioral inhibition system behavioral activation system

depression has high ___ __ __ functioning. some researchers see depression as a variant of anxiety, reflecting an oversensitive avoidance system. there is also evidence of a weak ___ ___ __ because there is little motivation to approach incentives

behavioral activation system behavioral inhibition system

in antisocial personality disorder there is too high ___ __ ___ functioning and too low __ __ __. so they pursue whatever incentive comes to mind and fail to learn from punishment or aren't motivated to avoid it. linked to they system that underlies impulsiveness and sensation seeking. possible that there is insufficient MAO, but only if maltreated while growing up

conscious

the ___ level of the mind is how you think, logical thinking, and reasoning; anything you're aware of

preconscious

the ___ level of the mind involves memory. something you are not aware of but if someone asks you about it you can bring it to your conscious level

unconscious

the ___ level of the mind is the portion of the mind that is not directly assessable to our awareness. It is the source of desires and as repository for urges, feelings, and ideas that are tied to anxiety, conflict, and pain

id

the ___ is the original part of personality. all the inherited, instinctive, primitive aspects of personality. functions in the unconscious. involves the pleasure principle and the primary process

pleasure principle

the __ ___ is the idea that all needs need to be satisfied immediately. you'll do whatever you can to get the pleasure object. unsatisfied needs create aversive tension states

primary process

the ___ ___ is the forming of an unconscious mental image of an object or event that would satisfy the need

wishful fulfillment

___ ___ is the experience of imagining an object to fulfill need

ego

the ___ evolves out of the id and harnesses some of the id's energy for its own use. it makes sure the id's impulses are expressed effectively by taking into account the external world. it appears in all levels of consciousness, but mostly in conscious and preconscious. has no moral sense

ego

the goal of the ___ is to delay the discharge of the id's tension until an appropriate object or context is found

reality principle

the ___ ___ takes into account external reality along with internal needs and urges

secondary process

the ___ ____ is matching the unconscious image of the id's tension and reducing the object to a real object

identification

____ is part of the secondary process, it is matching an image from the id with a real object from the real world

reality testing

___ ___ is part of the secondary process, it is the capacity for realistic thought which allow the ego to form plans of action to satisfy needs and test the plans mentally to see whether they will work

superego

the _____ embodies values (especially the relationship with parents). it is the last to develop and operates on all three levels: tries to prevent any id impulse that would be frowned on by one's parents, tries to force the ego to act morally rather than rationally, tries to guide the person toward perfection in thought, word and deed

introjections

____ are the idea of incorporating the values from your parents/society into your own psyche

conscience

___ is part of your superego. it is the sense of right and wrong, comprises rules about what behaviors the parents disapprove of and punish

ego ideal

the __ __ is part of your superego. it says what you should do, comprises rules for good behavior and standards of excellence

ego

balancing forces requires a lot of ____ strength because of it's ability to be effective despite conflicts of life

ego superego

the ___ is responsible for balancing reality, id impulses and the ___ is responsible for making that happen in a way that leads to fulfillment

energy

___ is neither created nor destroyed and people are complex (same word) systems

biological psychological

there are two basic elements to drives/instincts: a ____ need state and a ____ representation

hydraulic

the ___ model states that if you are trying to prevent a drive from being expressed it only creates more pressure toward its expression

life sexual

__ or ___ drives (eros) are a set of drives that deal with survival, reproduction and pleasure

death

___ drives (thanatos) and drives that deal with aggression. it states that an unconscious part of us wants to die. these instincts are usually held back by life instincts

cathexis

___ is the idea of investing energy to satisfy a need

catharsis

___ is the idea of releasing emotion tension because needs are satisfied. engaging in aggression should reduce tension because the aggressive urge is no longer being bottled up. because this act dissipates the urge's energy the person should be less likely to be aggressive again in the future

ego cathexes

___ ___ is the idea of investing energy in an activity chosen by the ego

anticathexes

____ is the idea of investing energy in suppressing an id impulse

anxiety

___ is a warning to the ego that something bad is going to happen

reality

___ anxiety is the anxiety of some immediate threat from the real world. ex. getting run down by a train. has nothing to do with id, ego or superego

neurotic

___ anxiety is the anxiety of fear of punishment resulting from id getting out of control

moral

___ anxiety is the anxiety of fear of violating moral or ethical groups. rises from the superego

repression

___ is the central mechanism of defense, it is an unconscious act of forcing something out of consciousness. a certain amount of energy is available to the ego to keep unacceptable impulses out of consciousness

primal

___ repression is the repression of an id impulse that makes you uncomfortable. ex. you're a waiter and a person is pissing you off and you want to punch them

repression proper

__ __ is repression toward a painful memory/experience. something you did or something that was done to you

suppression

____ is consciously forcing things out of your conscious

partial

___ repression is when you repress things partially

parapraxes

____ are mistakes that we make in lives for conscious reasons. ex. freudian slips or forgetting

denial

____ is the refusal to believe an event took place or a condition exists. it resembles repression and deals with threats from other sources

projection

____ is the ascription of unacceptable impulses, desires, or qualities to someone else. it provides a way to hide your knowledge of a disliked aspect of yourself will still expressing that quality

rationalization

____ is finding a reason/excuse for a behavior done for unacceptable reasons

intellectualization

_____ is thinking in a cold, analytical, or detached way about things that normally evoke distress, common in those who have experienced trauma

displacement

____ shifts impulse from one target to another. often happens when the intended target is threatening and substitutes a less threatening target for the original and reduces anxiety

sublimation

____ transforms the impulse into a more socially acceptable form. anxiety goes down when a transformed impulse is expressed instead of the initial one. keeps problems from occurring, rather than functioning after anxiety

fixation

___ is when too much energy gets permanently invested in a stage

oral

in the __ stage the mouth is the key erogenous zone and pleasure comes from tasting, licking and sucking

incorporative

the oral ___ stage is a helpless/dependent stage. If the infant experiences a helpful world, traits such as optimism and trust emerge. if not supportive world, pessimism and mistrust evolve. if too helpful, develop strong dependency on others

sadistic

the oral ___ phase has sexual pleasure come from biting and chewing. determines if an infant will be verbally aggressive later on

oral

___ characteristics are concerned with getting support from others and doing things that ease interaction with other people

anal

in the __ stage, the anus is the erogenous zone and pleasure comes from defecating. it is the first time external constraints are systematically imposed on infants' satisfaction of internal urges. if emphasis is on praise, child will be productive and creative. if emphasis is on punishment there are two options: if child is rebellious, they will have a set of anal expulsive traits. if child is compliant, they will try to withhold excrement and develop anal retentive traits (ocd)

phallic

in the __ stage, the genital organs are the erogenous zone. sexual pleasures are autoertotic. there is the Oedipus/electra complex, castration anxiety, identification and penis envy

oedipus electra

the __/___ complex is the child's desire to posses their parent of the opposite sex and replace their parent of the same sex

castration

_____ anxiety is that boys fear that their father will castrate them to eliminate the source of lust

penis envy

___ ___ is that a girl comes to wish that her father would share his penis with her through sex or provide her with the symbolic equivalent of a penis: a baby

men women

for the phallic stage, it will result in ___ having fixations that result in going to great lengths of showing they haven't been castrated (spreading their seed) or attaining great career success. for ___ they will be seductive and flirtatious but with a denial of the sexuality

latency

in the __ stage, sexual and aggressive drives are less active. there is the emergence of ego and superego. children turn to other pursuits, often intellectual or social

genital

in the __ stage a desire develops to share mutual sexual gratification with someone. rarely achieved in its entirety but is the ideal

insight energy

the goals of psychodynamic therapy is to gain ___ (re experiencing of emotional reality of repressed conflicts, memories or urges from previously unconscious parts of one's personality) and to free up ___ by releasing need to repress through awareness

empirically case

problems with freud's theory is that it is controversial, difficult to test ____, heavy reliance on a small number of potentially biased ___ studies, long, expensive and usually (psychologically) painful, defenses provide limitless flexibility, even so freud offers a significant and important contribution to the discussion of personality and human behavior

archetypes

Carl Jungs components of the mind consist of a conscious ego, a personal unconscious (like preconscious) memories and thoughts in the back your mind that are not your current concern, and the collective unconscious which is the idea that we all have memories from our ancestors and these memories are called _____

animus anima

one archetype from Jung's view is ___ (male component of a woman) and ___ (female component of a man). we all have the characteristics of the other sex because our ancestors were both men and women

persona shadow

one archetype from Jung's view is ___ (the "mask", so what we express to others, our appearance) and ___ (the opposite, how we think or react to our inner self)

mother

one archetype from Jung's view is ___. represents fertility, the caring mode that we have. everyone has this archetype in your deeper level of unconscious

hero demon

one archetype from Jung's view is ___ (self of being righteous, just and fair) and ____ (self being evil)

functions

Jung believed that we all have ___ but one dominates. ex. sensing - is there something there, thinking - what is it that is there, feeling - what is it worth?, and intuiting - where did it come from and where is it going

attitudes

Jung believe that we all have ____, both being extroversion and introversion but only one dominates. Extroversion is directing psychic energy to external world and introversion is directing psychic energy to the internal world

organ

Alder's ___ inferiority theory is the idea of striving for superiority and overcompensating. feelings of inferiority --> striving --> overcome hurdle --> raise bar --> feelings of inferiority --> repeat

inferiority

one mistaken lifestyle is the ____ complex which refers to when people feel that they always fail. in this model we assume people can overcome hurdles but that is not the case and if they keep having this kind of failure they will have this complex

superiority

one mistaken lifestyle is the ____ complex which even if they keep having failure and feeling inferior they want to overcome that feeling of inferiority, not by overcoming the hurdle, but by trying to be arrogant and show off how good they are and exaggerating. they think that they are capable of doing anything but they aren't, exaggerated self concept of superiority

first

in Alder's birth order the ___ is dethroned. usually treated like a king int he family when they first come out and they are attended to but when the second comes they feel like they lost their attention

second

in Alder's birth order the ___ is ambitious, competitive because they try to catch up to the first born

youngest

in Alder's birth order the ___ is spoiled, creative, lazy, try new things and identities

only

for an ___ child, they are like the first born but then are shocked when they go to school because they are not the center of attention so they are still dethrones

narcissistic

in self psychology the initial needs involving others is ____

grandiose

in self psychology the initial sense of self is ____

mirroring

___ is giving support to the child and responding in an empathic, accepting way (makes child the center of the universe)

concept

parents should address and fulfill a child narcissism because by addressing that you will develop a healthy self ____

ambitious

mirroring, in a healthy personality, can make us more ___ and helps develop self esteem

narcissistic

if there are severe failures of mirroring, the child never develops an adequate sense of self and later in life will have deeper ___ needs than other people because his or her needs have gone unmet

human beings

object in object relation theories refers to __ ___ relations with others

symbiosis

in Mahler's theory of attachment, the initial state of infant is ____ - period of fusion with your mother. . we start out being psychologically fused with our mothers. parents responsibility to help kids develop separation individuation

separation individuation

____-_____ is an awareness that the child and mother are separate. if mother is too present in the child's experience, the child won't be able to establish a separate existence. if mother pushes too much towards individuation, the child will experience a sense of rejection and loss (separation anxiety). if child develops a stable mental representation of its mother an the mother will be with the child all the time symbolically, therefore the object relation is internalized

secure

in ___ attachment, infant feels confident that when you need someone, someone is there and people are dependable. normal distress when the mother leaves and happy enthusiasm when she returns

ambivalent

in ____ insecure attachment, the infant is resistant, it is because parents are inconsistent in responding to their needs, infant was clingy and very distressed when mom leaves, but will reject the mother when she returns and be angry

avoidant

in ___ insecure attachment, if you have a parent who never responds to the need of the child, when the parent leaves, the kid is very calm because they are used to the parent leaving and when the parent comes back kid avoids interacting with mom

secure

low avoidance of others and low anxiety produces a ___ sense of self

preoccupied

low avoidance of others and high anxiety of self produce a ____ sense of self. you are ambivalent - afraid of rejection from partner, happy to develop relationships and have a partner but are always afraid they'll leave

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