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Single-stranded ends generated by the same restriction enzyme are complementary to each other. They can be joined together, (1 point)
a. even when the source of the DNA is different.
b. only when the source of the DNA is the same.
c. but the "sticky ends" will most likely have to be modified.
d. but the hybridization of the two ends may cause a problem with cloning.
e. only if the subunits have been methylated.

a. even when the source of the DNA is different.

DNA can be cleaved at specific sites, generating smaller DNA fragments with short single-stranded ends. The chemical tool used to cleave the DNA is called a(n) (1 point)
a. hybridization enzyme.
b. complementary enzyme.
c. restriction enzyme.
d. methylating enzyme.
e. endonuclease.

c. restriction enzyme.

Small, circular auxiliary DNA molecules of bacteria which are commonly used in
biotechnology are referred to as
a. transposons.
b. germ-line DNA molecules.
c. plasmids.
d. conformational DNA molecules.
e. translational DNA molecules.

c. plasmids.

What is the environmental benefit of the Enviropig? (1 point)
a. increased production of phosphate in pig waste
b. reduction of nutritional needs, thereby saving grains
c. reduction of phosphate excretion in pig waste
d. increased fat and flavor of pork

c. reduction of phosphate excretion in pig waste

What of the following is a potential disadvantage of using transgenic plants for vaccine production? (1 point)
a. large-scale production costs
b. inability to introduce new or multiple transgenes by sexual crossing of plants
c. inability to produce the antibodies in edible plants such as potatoes
d. risk of contamination with herbicides and pesticides

d. risk of contamination with herbicides and pesticides

Current vectors used for gene therapy insert into the genome as a random event. All of the following are potential problems that may result from this method of integration except (1 point)
a. activation of a proto-oncogene.
b. inactivation of a tumor-suppressor gene.
c. insertion in the middle of an essential gene.
d. expression of the transgenic gene.

d. expression of the transgenic gene.

A vaccine that depends on the cellular immune response of killer T cells is called
a (1 point)
a. subunit vaccine.
b. DNA vaccine.
c. cellular response vaccine.
d. T cell vaccine.

b. DNA vaccine.

Which of the following is not an example of reverse genetics? (1 point)
a. generation and analysis of a knockout mouse
b. RNA interference of a gene in C. elegans
c. generation of a transgenic fly that overexpresses an altered form of a gene
d. identification of the gene responsible for particular mutant phenotype

d. identification of the gene responsible for particular mutant phenotype

To generate a transgenic mouse, one would (1 point)
a. introduce the knocked-out gene into a blastocyst embryo, isolate the embryonic stem cells, implant the embryonic stem cells into a pseudopregnant female.
b. introduce the knocked-out gene into embryonic stem cells, isolate the cells from a pseudopregnant female, inject the transformed cells into a blastocyst stage embryo.
c. introduce the knocked-out gene into embryonic stem cells, implant the embryonic stem cells into a pseudopregnant female.
d. introduce the knocked-out gene into embryonic stem cells, inject the embryonic stem cells into a blastocyst stage embryo, implant the injected blastocyst into a pseudopregnant female.

d. introduce the knocked-out gene into embryonic stem cells, inject the embryonic stem cells into a blastocyst stage embryo, implant the injected blastocyst into a pseudopregnant female.

You are performing a yeast two hybrid screen to identify protein-protein interactions. Your bait is a 25 kD protein fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain. Which of the following best describes the nature of the library that you are using? (1 point)
a. The library contains the prey fused to the GAL4 activation domain.
b. The library contains the reporter gene fused to the GAL4 activation domain.
c. The library contains the bait fused to the GAL4 activation domain.
d. The library contains the bait fused to the reporter gene, which is upstream of the GAL4 activation
domain.

a. The library contains the prey fused to the GAL4 activation domain.

The development of PCR has revolutionized molecular biology and has led to numerous advances in basic research, as well as in medicine and forensic science.
Which of the following areas does not rely on PCR?
a. diagnosis of genetic diseases
b. detection of infectious disease
c. generation of hybrid plants
d. evolutionary biology

c. generation of hybrid plants

Automated enzymatic sequencing employs (1 point)
a. different colored fluorescent dyes conjugated to dideoxy terminators and capillary gel electrophoresis.
b. radioactively-labeled dideoxy terminators and capillary gel electrophoresis.
c. different colored fluorescent dyes conjugated to dideoxy terminators and slab gel
electrophoresis.
d. radioactively-labeled dideoxy terminators and slab gel electrophoresis.

a. different colored fluorescent dyes conjugated to dideoxy terminators and capillary gel electrophoresis.

In a manual enzymatic DNA sequencing reaction, the nucleotide ddT is incorporated (1 point)
a. at every T position in the synthesized DNA strand; the reaction is terminated when all T positions have been filled with ddT.
b. randomly at a single T position in the synthesized DNA strand, leading to termination of the reaction.
c. at several T positions in the synthesized strand, leading to termination of the reaction.
d. randomly at a A position in the template DNA strand, leading to termination of the reaction.

b. randomly at a single T position in the synthesized DNA strand, leading to termination of the reaction.

Which of the following two enzymes are needed to construct a cDNA library? (1 point)
a. reverse transcriptase and DNA ligase
b. reverse transcriptase and Taq polymerase
c. DNA ligase and Taq polymerase
d. Taq polymerase and RNA polymerase

a. reverse transcriptase and DNA ligase

Which of the following types of information would be most useful in an effort to move a DNA fragment from one plasmid vector to another, using molecular cloning techniques? (1 point)
a. restriction fragment length polymorphism data
b. sequence analysis
c. Southern blot data
d. restriction maps of the plasmids

d. restriction maps of the plasmids

You are hired as a scientific consultant for a popular television show about forensic analysis of crime scene evidence. You are told that in an upcoming scene, investigators will compare the DNA profiles of a known suspect and an unknown biological sample collected from the victim. You are asked to write up a brief explanation of the primary technique required for discussion in the scene. Which technique should you write about? (1 point)
(1 point)
a. DNA fingerprinting
b. DNA footprinting
c. RFLP analysis
d. PCR

a. DNA fingerprinting

A researcher identified a new enzyme and is interested in determining the mRNA expression pattern of this gene. Which of the following techniques would accomplish this goal? (1 point)
a. Southern blot
b. northern blot
c. western blot
d. eastern blot

b. northern blot

When compared with non-cancerous cells of the same tissue, cancer cells exhibit a number of changes in gene transcription. To identify genes that are differentially expressed in cancer cells versus non-cancer cells, one could perform (1 point)
a. subtractive hybridization.
b. a northern blot.
c. RFLP analysis.
d. PCR.

a. subtractive hybridization.

Your research project involves the characterization of a signal transduction pathway, and you would like to identify proteins that may interact with one of the pathway components. Which of the following libraries could you screen for this purpose? (1 point)
a. an expression library
b. a genomic library
c. a phage library
d. a BAC library

a. an expression library

You are trying to clone a piece of DNA into a plasmid vector that exhibits blue- white selection. Following ligation and transformation, you plate the host cells onto several plates containing the appropriate selective media. The next day you examine the bacterial colonies that grew. Which of the following plates should you select to proceed with the analysis of possible transformants? (1 point)
a. 3 white colonies, 50 blue colonies
b. 97 white colonies, 105 blue colonies
c. 43 white colonies, 6 blue colonies
d. 238 blue colonies

c. 43 white colonies, 6 blue colonies

Which of the following vectors is the best choice to clone a 23 kb genomic DNA fragment? (1 point)
a. plasmid vector
b. phage vector
c. YAC
d. BAC

b. phage vector

A 6.85 kb Eco RI fragment of DNA is shown below. The locations of several restriction sites are indicated. Scale is approximate.
You are performing a Southern blot analysis. To obtain a probe, you digest the above piece of DNA with Pst I and isolate a 2.6 kb Pst I fragment. You radiolabel the fragment and use it to probe a Southern blot of the above DNA that has been digested with Eco RI. Which of the following DNA fragments does your probe detect? (1 point)
a. 235 kb, 803 kb, 1142 kb, 2387 kb
b. 2622 kb
c. 1038 kb, 2285 kb, 3529 kb
d. 1038 kb, 3529 kb

d. 1038 kb, 3529 kb

A 6.85 kb Eco RI fragment of DNA is shown below. The locations of several restriction sites are indicated. Scale is approximate.
If you were to perform a double digest of this DNA using Bam HI and Eco RI, what is the size of the DNA fragment that would migrate the fastest on an agarose gel? (1 point)
a. 803 kb
b. 1038 kb
c. 2283 kb
d. 6850 kb

b. 1038 kb

A 6.85 kb Eco RI fragment of DNA is shown below. The locations of several restriction sites are indicated. Scale is approximate.
If you were to digest this fragment of DNA with Pst I, how many pieces of DNA would you obtain? (1 point)
a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4

c. 3

Bam HI is a Type II restriction enzyme that recognizes the sequence 5' GGATCC 3', and cuts between the two Gs, leaving a 5' overhang. If you were to digest DNA with Bam HI, what would be the sequence of the overhanging sticky end of the complimentary strand? (1 point)
a. 5' GATCC 3'
b. 5' GATC 3'
c. 5' CTAG 3'
d. 5'G3'

b. 5' GATC 3'

26. A vector "carries" ______________ into a host cell.
a. a recombinant RNA fragment
b. a recombinant DNA molecule
c. an endonuclease
d. glyphosate chains
e. "sticky" ended metabolites of X-gal degradation

b. a recombinant DNA molecule

DNA restriction enzymes are labeled I and II. Type I restriction enzymes
a. cut one strand at random points along the length of the DNA molecule.
b. make simple cuts across both DNA strands.
c. recognize palindromic sequences.
d. cut at multiple cloning sites along the length of the DNA molecule.

b. make simple cuts across both DNA strands.

Golden rice was genetically engineered by Ingo Potrykus in Switerland by combining genes from other organisms into the genome of common white rice. Which organism from the list below was NOT used? (1 point)
a. daffodil
b. wild rice
c. beans
d.
Agrobacterium
e. Aspergillus

d.Agrobacterium

An insecticidal protein has been discovered in a bacterium known as (1 point)
a. Escherichia coli.
b. Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
c. bacillus thuringinensis
d. Aspergillus sp.

c. bacillus thuringinensis

Plant scientists have successfully engineered some broadleaf crop plants to be
resistant to the application of glyphosate. Glyphosate works by (1 point)
a. inhibiting an enzyme known as RNA polymerase, which is required for aromatic amino acid production.
b. inhibiting an enzyme known as DNA polymerase II, which is required for aromatic amino acid production.
c. inhibiting an enzyme known as EPSP synthetase, which is required for aromatic amino acid production.
d. inhibiting an enzyme known as EPSP synthetase, which is required for uncoupling the mRNA from ribosomes during protein synthesis.

c. inhibiting an enzyme known as EPSP synthetase, which is required for aromatic amino acid production.

Agrobacterium is more difficult to use in genetic engineering procedures conducted on cereals such as corn, rice, and wheat because (1 point)
a. it does not infect these types of plants.
b. it does not contain the correct restriction enzymes necessary for insertion.
c. its plasmids have been altered to be used only in broadleaf plants.
d. it interferes with the nitrogen fixing capabilities of narrow leaf plants.

a. it does not infect these types of plants.

Some of the useful applications of genetic engineering include all of the following
except (1 point)
a. bacteria that can digest oil in an oil spill.
b. growing synthetic cotton.
c. manufacturing biopolymers.
d. using PCR to study ancient fossils.
e. to clone the perfect human being.

e. to clone the perfect human being.

The development of a subunit vaccine for herpes and hepatitis B has potential in the future. The proposed subunit vaccine would (1 point)
a. incorporate part of the mRNA of either the herpes or hepatitis B with the cowpox virus.
b. incorporate part of the reverse transcriptases of either the herpes or hepatitis B with the cowpox
virus.
c. incorporate part of the DNA of either the herpes or hepatitis B with the cowpox virus.
d. incorporate part of the protein—polysaccharide coat of either the herpes or
hepatitis B with the cowpox virus.

d. incorporate part of the protein—polysaccharide coat of either the herpes or
hepatitis B with the cowpox virus.

Scientists can distinguish between DNA of different individuals, thus making this
information useful in criminal investigations. The technique used is called
a. restriction fragment length polymorphisms.
b. gene cloning.
c. hybridization polymorphisms.
d. Southern Blot.
e. genetic engineering.

a. restriction fragment length polymorphisms.

Crop plants have been protected from certain insects by the addition of a gene for
a specific insect toxin from the bacterium
a. Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
b. bacillus thuringiensis
c. Herpes simplex.
d. Pseudomonas.
e. tobacco mosaic.

b. bacillus thuringiensis

A plasmid used to carry genes into crop plants is (1 point)
a. Ti.
b. glyphosphate.
c. somatotropin.
d. recombinant DNA.
e. Roundup.

a. Ti.

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) involves three steps. The correct order of those steps is (1 point)
a. denaturation, annealing of primers, and then primer extension.
b. annealing of primers, denaturation, and then primer extension.
c. primer extension, annealing of primers, and then denaturation.

a. denaturation, annealing of primers, and then primer extension.

A commercially significant human protein now produced in bacteria is (1 point)
a. hemoglobin.
b. gamma globulins.
c. AZT.
d. human insulin.
e. HIV vaccine.

d. human insulin.

If the lacZ gene is functional it produces an enzyme known as _____________, which
allows the bacterial cell to metabolize the sugar, X-gal.
a. beta-glucosidase
b. beta-xylosidase
c. gamma-endonuclease
d. alpha-galactosidase
e. beta-galactosidase

e. beta-galactosidase

When electrical current is applied during a gel electrophoresis procedure, the DNA fragments are separated by (1 point)
a. electrical charge, positive on one side, negatives on the other.
b. the number of poly-A tails associated with each one.
c. their response to the staining chemicals used during the procedure.
d. the size of the fragments.
e. the enzyme binding activity sites.

d. the size of the fragments.

In genetic engineering experiments, a common way of identifying a transformed cell is by using a "probe," which is a (1 point)
a. specific complimentary double stranded DNA.
b. specific complimentary double stranded RNA.
c. specific complimentary single stranded DNA.
d. specific complimentary single stranded RNA.

c. specific complimentary single stranded DNA.

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) includes all of the following steps except (1 point)
a. denaturation of primers and the DNA fragment to be amplified.
b. anealing of primers to the complementary sequences on the DNA.
c. primer extension with DNA polymerase.
d. cycle repetition.
e. addition of new Taq polymerase after each cycle.

e. addition of new Taq polymerase after each cycle.

The most common way to follow bacterial transformation with a plasmid is by (1 point)
a. manufacturing the bacterial protein.
b. conferring antibiotic resistance.
c. separating the altered cell surface.
d. making the cells immortal.
e. altering the physical appearance of the cells.

b. conferring antibiotic resistance.

Most genetic engineering experiments include four stages. Which of the following is not one of them? (1 point)
a. cleaving the source DNA
b. production of recombinant DNA
c. cloning copies of the recombinanats
d. screening the cloned copies for the desired gene
e. integration of the entire bacterial chromosome

e. integration of the entire bacterial chromosome

Vectors are vehicles of transport for foreign DNA fragments into host cells, and are usually either a virus or a bacterial (1 point)
a. plasmid.
b. protist.
c. yeast.
d. plant cell.
e. human cell.

a. plasmid.

The ends of DNA fragments produced by the same restriction enzyme can be joined
together by another enzyme,
a. DNA polymerase.
b. DNA methylase.
c. DNA synthetase.
d. DNA ligase.
(1 point)
e. DNA primase.

d. DNA ligase.

Restriction enzymes recognize DNA sequences that are (1 point)
a. A-T rich.
b. C-G rich.
c. palindromes.
d. complementary.
e. sticky.

c. palindromes.

An enzyme that has been isolated from retroviruses is (1 point)
a. transverse ligase.
b. reverse transcriptase.
c. reverse endonuclease.
d. recombinant RNAase.
e. RNA polymerase.

b. reverse transcriptase.

Restriction enzymes are (1 point)
a. proteases.
b. lipases.
c. endonucleases.
d. exonucleases.

c. endonucleases.

DNA fragments complementary to the DNA being investigated are referred to as (1 point)
a. rDNA.
b. cDNA.
c. mDNA.
d. tDNA.

b. cDNA.

Plasmids must have two components, an origin of replication to allow it to replicate in E. coli independently of the chromosome, and (1 point)
a. a phage capable of infecting the E. coli bacterium.
b. a tissue plasminogen activator.
c. multiple cloning sites.
d. a selectable marker, usually antibiotic resistance.

d. a selectable marker, usually antibiotic resistance.

All of the following involve molecular biology techniques except (1 point)
a. cutting and rearranging the DNA.
b. using restriction enzymes to cut specific sequences of DNA.
c. cloning the genes into the host organism.
d. using any cell as a vector.

d. using any cell as a vector.

A search for sequences that are complementary to the desired sequence of a DNA
fragment uses a technique called
a. plasmid insertion.
b. vector extraction.
c. cloning.
d. electrophoresis.
e. hybridization.

e. hybridization.

Two strands of DNA that have been cut by an endonuclease can be sealed together by a(n) (1 point)
a. polymerase enzyme.
b. ligase enzyme.
c. exonuclease enzyme.
d. protease enzyme.
e. methylase enzyme.

b. ligase enzyme.

The procedure for producing a line of genetically identical cells from a single "altered" cell is called _______.

Cloning

Enzymes that cleave DNA at specific sites are called ________ _________.

restriction endonucleases

Small circular, extrachromosomal DNA segments are known as ________.

plasmids

The most recent techniques developed in the biological sciences allow the manipulation of DNA with the ultimate goal of intervening directly with the _______ fate of organisms.

genetic

Ends of DNA fragments produced by asymmetric cleavage with restriction endonucleases; same ends are produced by the same enzyme irrespective of the source of the DNA.
A. sticky ends
B. RFLP
C. PCR
D. plasmids
E. transgenic organisms

A. sticky ends

Organisms produced by moving genes of one species to another; desired characteristics such as disease resistance or increased size are transferred.
A. sticky ends
B. RFLP
C. PCR
D. plasmids
E. transgenic organisms

E. transgenic organisms

Technique used to analyze DNA products after restriction enzyme digestion; "fingerprints."
A. sticky ends
B. RFLP
C. PCR
D. plasmids
E. transgenic organisms

B. RFLP

Technique used to amplify a desired piece of DNA.
A. sticky ends
B. RFLP
C. PCR
D. plasmids
E. transgenic organism

C. PCR

Autonomous auxiliary DNA circles found in bacteria; easily enter the organism they are found in; used as a vehicle to transport desired foreign genes.

D. plasmids

In addition to bacteria, _______ can also be used as vectors to insert foreign DNA
limit)
into host cells and create recombinant genomes.

viruses

A ______ vaccine is produced by using only a part of the viral genome.

subunit

________ is a human protein synthesized in small amounts that can dissolve blood clots

TPA

Gel ________ is a process that separates DNA or protein fragments according to their size, by causing them to migrate within a gel in response to an electric field.

electrophoresis

Viruses and bacterial plasmids are used as ______ to insert foreign DNA into host
cells and create recombinant genomes.

vectors

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