Meeting of all Mongol chieftans at which the supreme ruler of all Mongol tribes was selected.
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
1350-1550, time of transition from medieval to modern times characterized by intellectual and political expansion as well as the rebirth of culture
Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from 1304-1374 as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his "lady love" who spoke no Latin.
1267-1336. An artist who led the way into realism; his treatment of the human body and face replaced the formal stiffness and artificiality that had long characterized the representation of the human body
Italian baroque composer and violinist (1675-1741)
Prince Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.
Cape of Good Hope
Southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
(1480?-1521) Portuguese-born navigator. Hired by Spain to sail to the Indies in 1519. (The same year HRE Charles V became empreor.) Magellan was killed in the Philippines (1521). One of his ships returned to Spain (1522), thereby completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
landed in peru and encountered the Inca empire; 1531 came back to peru with permission; he snuck canons and archers around the city; if the emperor, Atahualpa refused to submit to christianity; Pizarro gave him a bible and emperor threw it on the ground; Pizarro attacked city and took emperor prisoner; executed emperor a few years later and appointed figureheads
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for the Dutch seaborne empire; by 1770 settlements had expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with Bantus.
pattern involved late marriages, and a primary emphasis on nuclear families of parent and children rather than extended families characteristic of most agricultural civilizations
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
Title for supreme ruler of all Mongol tribes
Basic fighting units of the Mongol forces; consisted of 10,000 cavalrymen; each unit was further divided into units of 1000, 100 and 10.
Capital of the Mongol empire under Chinggis Khan, 1162 - 1227.
ruler of the golden horde; one of Chinggis Khan's grandsons; responsible for the invasion of Russia beginning in 1236.
Third son of Chinggis Khan; succeeded Chinggis Khan as khagan of the Mongols following his father's death.
Khanate of the Golden Horde
the Mongol empire, that, after the fall of Kiev, ruled all of southern Russia for 200 years
Ruler of the Golden Horde; converted to Islam; his threat to Hulegu combined with the growing power of Mameluks in Egypt forestalled further Mongol conquests in the Middle East
Grandson of Chinggis Khan; commander of Mongol forces responsible for conquest of China; became khagan in 1260; established Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1271.
influential wife of Kubilai Khan; promoted interests of Buddhists in China; indicative of refusal of Mongol women to adopt the restrictive social conventions of the Chinese; died 1281 C.E.
White Lotus Society
Secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty in China; typical of peasant resistance to Mongol rule. Led a revolt against Qin Dynasty because of discontent with taxes.
Chinese peasant who led successful revolt against Yuan in 14th century; founded Ming dynasty.
A major dynasty that ruled China from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. It was marked by a great expansion of Chinese commerce into East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, 1368-1644
Leader of Turkic nomads; beginning in 1360s from base at Samarkand, launched series of attacks in Persia, the Fertile Crescent, India, and southern Russia; empire disintegrated after his death in 1405
captured Constantinople in 1453 and renamed it Istanbul; as a result the Byzantine people flee to Italian City-States which becomes a catalyst for the expansion of language and art
Muslim mystics who sought communion with God through meditation, fasting, and other rituals
A court eunuch that led series of overseas trade expeditions between 1405 and 1433; only Chinese attempt to create worldwide trade empire
Seven Years' War
a, Fought in Europe, Africa, and Asia between 1756 and 1763; the first worldwide war. British vs. French. Britain wins. Ended by Treaty of Paris.