World History I chapter 7 for test - Roman Empire and the Rise of Christianity

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people of Italian Peninsula

made up of many different tribal peoples

mountains on Italian peninsula and river

Apennine mountains; northern border is Alps; Tiber River is where Rome emerges

3 early peoples of ancient Rome

Italic peoples (central); Greek colonists (south, Sicily); Etruscans (north)

modest beginnings of Rome

huts and swamps

4 foundational myths of Rome

Romulus and Remus, The Rape of Lucretia, Cincinnatus, and The Aeneid

Romulus and Remus

twins with semi-divine status raised by wolves; considered founders of Rome

The Rape of Lucretia plot

noblewoman; husband is in competition who has best wife so they go see what wives are doing unsupervised; she's found working and she serves them and wins competition; prince rapes her and she kills herself for sake of husband's honor who then overthrows Atruscan King

morals of The Rape of Lucretia

monarchy is evil and to be avoided at all costs; Lucretia is model wife

Cincinnatus plot

emergency situation with dictator to protect form monarchy; he's a small farmer Roman citizen who drops everything to serve as dictator and defeats Rome's enemies in year then goes back to farm

moral of Cincinnatus

model citizen for taking power then giving it up

the Aeneid plot

Trojan soldier who escaped Trojan wars; blends Greek and Roman; loyal to family

how were Roman myths different than Mesopotamian and Greek foundational myths?

Roman myths were "historical" - founded in time

government structure of Roman Republic

Republic, then empire int he east is built at the same time

who wrote the earliest surviving history?

Livy

government of early roman republic involved...

2 consuls (imperium) with one year posisiton; senate of about 300 men who have office for life representing the elite Patrician social class; Plebian assembly in which all free men vote

Punic wars were against

Carthage

Roman accomplishments during Punic Wars

Romans developed a navy and established overseas provinces

expansion during Punic wars

into Eastern Mediterranean and Greece

tax farming

local Macedonian bids saying I'll tax and only take _%

latifundias

new land owned by government acquired from military progress turned into these; plantations that make government people rich

who controlled top government offices in Roman Republic

26 rich families

major problem leading to Roman Republic's decline

long deployments far away and come back to find farm has been lost and maybe can't find family; no longer citizens because don't have land; angry so they go kill people

Gracchi brothers names

Tiberius and Gaius

Tiberius Gracchi's reform

he serves as tribune of Plebians (high class) who instigates reforms seeing economic and social problems as primary (soldiers losing citizenship), proposing land distribution of giving Latifundias to veterans; he was assassinated

Gaius Gracchi's reform

grain prices have shot up because it's being exported for more money so there's a shortage in Rome; he tries to fix this and is also assassinated

Marius and the New Army Reform

problems with recruitment so he takes away requirement that they're land owners and citizens but then they no longer have sense of loyalty to Rome, it's to their general who pays them - generals are really building private armies - civil war over who gets to fight newest regime between generals and Senate

First Triumvirate

3 top generals of Senate class: Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar was sent to...

bring Gall under control

Pompey and Caesar

Pompey is worried about Julius Caesar getting too much power so asks him to surrender army and come back to normal citizen status (play Cincinnatus); Julius Caesar says no and wins civil war with Pompey

what happens when Caesar wins civil war with Pompey?

becomes dictator but then is assassinated

statue of Brutus in Senate

goes back to Rape of Lucretia; people posted notes on this saying needed someone to get rid of Caesar - Brutus who stages assassination of Caesar

after Caesar is assassinated what comes next?

15 years of civil war

Second Triumvirate

Octavian (later known as Augustus), Marc Antony, and Lepidus

main goal of Second Triumvirate

trying to get rid of 26 controlling families

Octavian becomes

trained by others to become shrewd military leader

Antony and Octavian

Antony is allied with Cleopatra; Octavian portrays him as traitor to Rome saying they plan to establish monarchy; defeats them at Batlle of Actium and they both commit suicide

Octavian after Battle of Actium

now holds all military control and has gained control of Egypt and ended civil war; pretends he's going to retire and play Cincinnatus, but really gets to keep power

what was the empire of Octavian called and what was the leader called and what did it mean?

the principate; princeps: principle/first citizen; didn't want to be called king or prince

who reestablishes political stability after second triumvirate?

Augustus (Octavian; he's called this later)

what does Augustus (Octavian) do during his reign?

helps rich and poor with his private money; reforms the army and pays them out of his own personal treasury; builds up his own bodyguards

permanent army established by Augustus had...

not enough Romans to fill it so allies (non-citizens) also join

pax romana

Roman Peace

problem that arises during Augustus' reign

back to hereditary army

priests of Rome

state officials, sent out to negotiate diplomatically and they consult gods before government makes decisions for divine approval

tutelary gods

Greek culture brought into Rome; deities who protect certain places/people

Augustus and Caesar

Augustus had Caesar's spirit recognized as a god (helps him to legitimize himself)

"cult" of the emperor

sacrificing to dead emperors, begun by Augustus recognizing Caesar's spirit as god

who ruled Judea

Seleucids and Ptolemies

when did Romans begin occupying Judea?

when Julius Caesar was assassinated

Sadducees and Sanhedrin beliefs

say must obey government and will be given freedom in return

Pharisees beliefs

religiously conservative and extremely dedicated to the Law

Essenes as described in Qumran/Dead Sea Scrolls beliefs

emphasis on repentance and withdrawal from society

Zealots beliefs

believe in political resistance, wanting independence

Jews in Rome

had been respected as historical religion and were exempt from making pagan sacrifices

Christians in Rome

as a new religion were not exempt from making pagan sacrifices and weren't a legal religion so met in secret and were considered anti-social

Paul of Tarsus is considered...

founder of Christianity because he spread it

first systematic persecution...

in third century under Emperor Decius who blamed them for empire's troubles because thought gods were unhappy

worst persecution was under...

Diocletian

how did Diocletian salvage the empire?

dividing it in half; east has advantage because much more economically developed; put Augustus in place, one on each half, as co-emperors, with Caesars under them as emperors-in-training who will succeed them

edict of milan

made Christianity legal; made because Constantine had vision needed to paint sign of Christianity on shields - they do and are victorious

Council of Nicaea/Nicene Creed

Christians began arguing over doctrine so Constantine made these

Theodosius

makes Christianity only legal religion

Pachomius

in Egypt, promotes monasticism (lifestyle of monks)

two important centers of Egypt for Christianity

Pachomius and Alexandria

Alexandria

where NT books were declared canonical by Athanasius

Athanasius

bishop of Alexandria; first to list the 27 books of the NT as canonical

Dontius

believes if priests are not of good character the sacraments are ineffective

Aksom

modern-day Ethiopia - rulers converted; Edict of Milan; close ties to Egypt's church

terrible third century

barracks emperors - seized control thru military; Decius

Constantine's 2 major things

moves capital of east from Rome to Constantinople, letting the west go; Edict of Milan legalizes Christianity

which falls first, east or west?

west falls first

migrations and invasions during fall

Huns; various Germanic tribes

economic issues of fall

agricultural problems - can't pay soldiers - mutinies

who replaced the last roman emperor in the west?

Germanic king (never goes back); Franks have longest lasting Germanic reign - France and Germany; pagans

who established 2 kingdoms in Italy

Ostrogoths and Lombards

where was Gaul

France

Where were the Franks

Germany

Where were the Visigoths

Spain

Where were the Vandals

North Africa

what was the east empire called?

Byzantine (capital of Constantinople built over Byzantium)

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