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1) A literary tradition is

the written form of a language

2) A form of a language spoken in a local area is a

dialect.

3) A group of languages that share a common origin but have since evolved into individual languages is a

language branch.

4) A group of languages that share a common ancestor before recorded history is a

language family.

5)The second-largest language family is

B)

Sino-Tibetan.

6) When languages are depicted as leaves on trees, the roots of the trees below the surface represent

possible prehistoric superfamilies.

7) When languages are depicted as leaves on trees, the trunks of the trees represent

language families.

8) Germanic invaders of England included which tribe?

Normans

9) Both the Angles and the Normans contributed to the development of the English language, because they

invaded England.

10) English is the most important language in North America primarily because of

the diffusion of English colonies.

11) The first speakers of the language that evolved into English were tribes that lived in present-day

Denmark.

12) English is part of which language group?

West Germanic

13) English is part of which language branch?

Germanic

14) English is part of which language family?

Indo-European

15) Which group of the Germanic family is extinct?

East Germanic

16) The Icelandic language has changed less than any other Germanic language because of

Iceland's relative isolation from other places

17) When people who speak a given language migrate to a different location and become isolated from other members of their tribe

isolation usually results in the differentiation of one language into two.

18) Which of the following is not a Romance language?

Bulgarian

19) The language spoken by soldiers stationed throughout the Roman Empire was known as

Vulgar Latin.

20) The most widely spoken language in Brazil is

Portuguese

21) A creolized language is

a mix of indigenous and colonial languages.

22) The most widely spoken Indo-European language is

English.

23) The four most frequently spoken branches of Indo-European include all but

Celtic.

24) The two most important languages in South America are

Portuguese and Spanish.

25) The Flemings and Walloons live in what country?

Belgium

26) The Flemings and Walloons speak languages belonging to different

language branches.

27) Official languages in Switzerland include all but which of the following?

Flemish

28) Urdu is the most important language of

Pakistan.

29) Russian is part of what language branch?

Balto-Slavic

30) Celtic languages

-were threatened by extinction in England.
-are still spoken by people in France.
-have been revived in some parts of the British Isles.
-have an extensive body of literature.
(all of the above)

31) Marija Gimbutas' theory points to the first speakers of the Indo-European language as the ancient

Kurgans.

32) The Kurgans

were horse and cattle herders from the grassland steppes of present day Russia and Kazakhstan.

33) Basque is spoken primarily in

the Pyrenees Mountains.

34) According to Colin Rehfrew's Anatolian hearth theory, Indo-European languages diffused across Europe

with the diffusion of agriculture.

35) The two largest language families in the world are

Sino-Tibetan and Indo-European.

36) The language family encompassing the languages of the People's Republic of China is

Sino-Tibetan.

37) The language spoken by the greatest number of native speakers in the world is

Mandarin

38) Chinese is written in the form of

ideograms.

39) Hebrew is an example of

a revived language.

40) An Indo-European language is spoken in which of these European countries?

-Bulgaria
-Finland
-Hungary
-Estonia
(all of the above)

41) The second most widely spoken language family in Europe is

Uralic.

42) The large number of individual languages documented in Africa has resulted primarily from

thousands of years of isolation between tribal groups.

43) The most important language family in Sub-Saharan Africa is

Niger-Congo.

44) African languages are distinguished by the fact that

linguists continue to add newly discovered languages to the African list.

45) A lingua franca is

a language that is mutually understood by people who have different native languages

46) Dialects developed within England primarily because

different Germanic invaders settled in different regions.

47) British and American English differ in all but which of the following?

alphabet

48) Immigrants to which American colonies had the most diverse backgrounds?

Middle Atlantic

49) An isogloss is

a boundary between language regions.

50) Franglais is

the use of English in the French language.

51) The Angles, Jutes, and Saxons were Celtic tribes who invaded England 1500 years ago

False

52) English was spread around the world through the establishment of British colonies.

True

53) Icelandic has probably changed less over time than any other Germanic language

True

54) Nearly half the people in the world speak an Indo-European language.

True

55) Switzerland has four official languages.

True

56) Germanic, Romance, and Latin are all branches of Indo-European.

False

57) Evidence suggests the first speakers of Indo-European were the Kurgans

True

58) Indo-European divided into different branches because of isolation of different speakers.

True

59) Basque is the only non-Indo-European language currently spoken in Europe.

False

60) The most spoken language in China is Cantonese.

False

61) Hebrew is an example of an extinct language.

False

62) The most frequently spoken Afro-Asiatic language is Arabic.

True

63) Regional dialects in England can be traced back to the settlement patterns of the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes.

True

64) Americans spell words differently than the British primarily because of a strong national feeling in the United States for an independent identity

True

65) New Englanders use a different dialect of English than other Americans because they came from different regions of England.

True

66) What geographic factor accounts for the fact that both Americans and the British speak English?

Colonies migrated from England

67) What geographic factor accounts for the fact that both Americans and the British use different dialects of English?

Isolation between U.S & Britain.

68) In what country do the Flemings and Walloons live?
What is the official language in the northern half of that country?
What is the official language in the southern half of that country?

Belgium, Dutch,French

69) What is the most important language FAMILY in South America?
What is the most important language BRANCH of that family in South America?
What are the two most important INDIVIDUAL languages in South America?

Indo-European, Romance, Portugeuse, Spanish

70) Name the world's largest language family (used by half of the world's population).

Indo-European

71) Name the world's second largest language family (used by nearly one-fourth of the world's population).

Sino-Tibetan

72) Name the most important language branch in each region of Europe.
a. northwestern
b. southwestern
c. eastern

a.Germanic
b. Romance
c. Slavic/Balto-Slavic

73) What is the significance of the Kurgans for the study of the geography of languages?

They were the 1st Indo-European speakers.

74) In what three ways does the English used in the United States differ from the English used in the United Kingdom?

Spelling, pronunciation, and vocabulary

75) What is the primary language family in the Middle East?
What is the predominant individual language in the Middle East?

Afro-Asiatic, Arabic

76) In what ways do American and British English differ? What geographic factors explain the similarities and differences in American and British English?

Differences: Spelling, Pronunciation, Vocabulary
Because colonists who migrated here isolated themselves from Britain's English. Similarities: Alphabet

77) How do we know that all Indo-European languages have a common ancestor?

Europe contains languages from all branches of the Indo-European family.

78) Why do people in different regions of the United States speak English differently?

Different dialects based on regions, immigrants, and colonists from Europe came from 3 Germanic tribes.

79) What are the future prospects for different groups of non-English speakers in North America?

Uniqueness due to the fact that most Americans only speak English.

80) Discuss the increasing role of English as the world's lingua franca.

Globalization/Dominance of English, Diffusion to other languages.

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