Management Review

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Innovation

Organizational ____ is the successful implementation of creative ideas in an organization.

Technology

is the knowledge, tools, and techniques used to transform inputs to outputs

cycle

A technology___begins with the birth of a new technology and ends when that technology reaches its limits and dies as it is replaced by a newer, substantially better technology.

Technological Discontinuity

The development of the digital camera forced Kodak into the innovation stream because the new imaging process was an

Discontinuous Change

is the phase of a technology cycle characterized by technological substitution and design competition

Technological discontinuity, discontinuous change, dominant design, incremental change

In order from beginning to end, the phases of a technology cycle within an innovation stream consists of

Companies that can't manage incremental innovation deteriorate slowly as they fall farther behind industry leaders

which of the following statements about managing innovation is true?

Which of the following statements about resistance to change is true?

Resistance to change will not occur when those affected by the change participate in its planning and implementation.

The 3 steps in the basic process of managing organizational change outlined by Kurt Lewin are

unfreezing, change intervention, and refreezing

Nestle is a company based in Switzerland with manufacturing plants in Columbia, Australia, Canada, Egypt, Kenya, and more than 90 other nations. Nestle is an example of a

Multinational corporation

The two general kinds of trade barriers are

tariff barriers and nontariff barriers

The acronym GATT stands for the

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trades

Which of the following represents the correct sequence for the phase model of globalization?

exporting; cooperative contracts; strategic alliances; wholly-owned affiliates

Franchising and Licensing

are both examples of cooperative contracts

Organizational Process

is the collection of activities that transform inputs into outputs that customers value

Departmentalization

This organizational structure was perceived as a way to enhance the accumulation and dissemination of knowledge. Institutions providing higher education have traditionally used ____

Product

Hallmark has 4 departments. 1. Flowers and Gifts 2. Cards and E-cards 3. Hallmark Collectables 4. Photo Albums and Scrapbooks Hallmark uses ___ departmentalization

The primary disadvantage of customer departmentalization is ____

duplication

In terms of the chain of command ___ authority is the right to command immediate subordinates, while ___ authority is the right to advise but not command others who are not subordinates

line; staff

When managers delegate work, three transfers occur. The 3 transfers are responsibility, authority, and ____

accountability

Decentralization

leads to faster decision making and more satisfied customers and employees

Job Design

determines the number, kind, and variety of tasks that individual workers perform in their jobs.

Autonomy

is the degree to which a job gives workers this discretion, freedom, and independence to decide how and when to accomplish their jobs.

Which of the following is a reason teamwork can be more satisfying then traditional work?

All of these are reasons why teamwork can be more satisfying than traditional work

Which of the following statements describe an advantage teams have over individuals in the decision-making process?

all of these describe advantage teams have over individuals in the decision-making process

In the autonomy continuum, the correct sequence, from low team autonomy to high team autonomy is

traditional work groups, employee involvement teams, semi autonomous work groups, self-managing teams and self designing teams

Autonomy continuum

shows how five kinds of teams differ in terms of autonomy

Norms

are informally agreed-on standards that regulate team behavior

Cohesiveness

is the extent to which team members are attracted to a team and motivated to remain with it

Affective Conflict

undermines team effectiveness by preventing teams from engaging in the kinds of activities that are critical to team effectiveness

Which of the following types of conflict is most strongly associated with improvements in team performance

cognitive conflict

Which of the following is one of the stages that teams pass through as they develop and grow, rather than decline

de norming

Human resource management

is the process of finding, developing, and keeping the right people to form a qualified work force.

Which of the following statements about federal employment law is true?

The intent of anti-discrimination law is to make factors such as gender, race, or age irrelevant in employment decisions

A limitation on weight and height of individuals working in quality control at this company would be legal because it is an example of ___

bona fide occupational qualifications (BFQQs)

Disparate Treatment

is intentional discrimination that occurs when people are purposefully not given the same hiring, promotion, or membership opportunities because of their race, sex, age, ethnic group, national origin, or religious beliefs

Adverse impact

is unintentional discrimination in which there is a substantially different rate of selection in hiring, promotion, or other employment decisions that works to the disadvantage of members of a particular race, sex, age, ethnicity, or protected group.

When the CEO opened the nationwide sales force meeting with a crude sexually explicit joke about Foreign Legion soldiers, it was an example of

Sexual Harassment

80 percent rule

is a rule of thumb used by the courts of the EEOC to determine whither there is evidence of adverse impact. A violation of this rule occurs when the selection rate for a protected group is less than a specified level of the selection rate for a nonprotected group.

Quid pro quo sexual harassment

is the form of sexual harassment in which employment outcomes such as hiring, promotion, or simply keeping one's job depend on whether an individual submits to sexual harassment

Job analysis

is a purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job

Job specifications, job analyses, and job descriptions

help companies meet the legal requirement that their human resource decisions be job-related.

Before beginning to recruit, organizations must

conduct a job analysis

Which of the following statements about Internet recruiting is true?

the company will only receive applications from qualified people.

If background checks reduced employee thievery over a period of time and throughout the industry, then this selection process would be

validated

Which type of selection information would employers in the construction industry receive the greatest benefit from if their goal is to stop employee theft?

background checks

Which of the following types of tests accurately predicts job performance in almost all kinds of jobs?

cognitive ability tests

Structured

interview uses only standardized, job related interview questions that are prepared ahead of time and asked of all candidates

Training

means providing opportunities for employees to develop the job-specific skills, experience, and knowledge they need to do their jobs or improve their performance

One of the disadvantages associated with Internet training is

the cost of equipment and technology

Which of the following statements about performance appraisal is true?

Most employees and managers intensely dislike the performance appraisal process.

Which of the following is common type of rating error to which managers are prone in the performance appraisal process?

central tendency error

360-degree feedback

is a performance appraisal process in which feedback is obtained from the boss, subordinates, peers, and co-workers as well as the employees themselves.

Job evaluations

determine the worth of each job by determining the market value of the knowledge, skills, and requirements needed to perform it.

To minimize the problems inherent in firing employees, managers should do which of the following?

Before firing employees, managers should give them a chance to improve

A modem factory owned by 3Com in Morton Grove, Illinois, has 1,200 workers who speak 20 different languages. This factory illustrates

diversity

A key difference between affirmative action and diversity is that

diversity has a broader focus

Deep-level diversity

consists of differences such as personality and attitudes that are learned only through extended interaction with others and are communicated through verbal and nonverbal behaviors

The mail sailors who would not teach her were exhibiting

surface level diversity

Which of the following statements about disabilities is true?

Accommodations for disabilities needn't be expensive

Personality

is the relatively stable set of behaviors, attitudes, and emotions displayed over time that makes people different form each other.

Which of the following is one of the Big Five personality dimensions

emotional stability

big five personality dimensions

extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, emotional stability

Conscientiousness

is the degree to which someone is organized, hardworking, responsible, and achievement-oriented.

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