Exam 3 (Digestive, Metabolism, Urinary)

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Organs of alimentary canal

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum), anus

Accessory digestive organs

teeth, tongue, gallbladder, salivary glands, liver, and pancreas

The major means of propelling food through the digestive tract is ___________.

peristalsis

Which digestive process normally occurs only in the mouth?
A) digestion
B) ingestion
C) propulsion
D) absorption

ingestion

The _______ is the serous membrane that lines the body wall.

parietal peritoneum

The _______ circulation includes all of the arteries that serve the digestive organs.

splanchnic

The innermost tissue layer of the alimentary canal is the __________.

mucosa

Saliva does not:
A) aid in the chemical digestion of proteins.
B) moisten food.
C) clean the mouth.
D) dissolve food chemicals so that they can be tasted.

A) aid in the chemical digestion of proteins

Which histological layer of the digestive tract is composed primarily of epithelial tissue?

Mucosa

The _______ guards the entry of food into the stomach.

cardiac sphincter

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the stomach?

A) The stomach mucosa is folded into rugae.
B) The stomach releases enzymes to digest carbohydrates.
C) The stomach has three layers of muscle in the muscularis tunic.
D) The stomach produces a double-layered coat of alkaline mucus.

B) The stomach releases enzymes to digest carbohydrates.

In the ________ of gastric secretion, chyme is moved into the duodenum.

intestinal phase

The _________ is the last segment of the small intestine.

ileum

Which of the following is not a structural modification of the small intestine to increase surface area?

A) Rugae
B) Villi
C) Microvilli
D) Circular folds

A) Rugae

What role of the stomach is essential to life?

production of intrinsic factor

Bile is produced by the:

liver

The pancreas secretes:

A) bile.
B) secretin.
C) procarboxypeptidase.
D) cholecystokinin (CCK).

C) procarboxypeptidase

Most digestion and absorption of nutrients occurs in the:

small intestine

The major function of the large intestine is to:

absorb water

______ can result if food passes too slowly through the large intestine.

constipation

Proteins are digested into _______.

amino acids

Which is mismatched?

A) Protease: lipid digestion
B) Amylase: carbohydrate digestion
C) Lipase: fat digestion
D) Nuclease: DNA and RNA digestion

A) Protease: lipid digestion

Which organ of the digestive tract is the body's major digestive organ?

Small intestine

What is the major digestive function of the pancreas?

Production of digestive enzymes

Which part of the digestive system is the major location for absorption of the end products of digestion?

Small intestine

Which of the following is a water-soluble vitamin?

A) Vitamin A
B) Vitamin E
C) Vitamin C
D) Vitamin D

C) Vitamin C

Blood drained from the stomach is more alkaline (basic) than blood that serves the stomach. (True or False?)

True

Which enzymes are responsible for the final chemical breakdown of carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleic acids?

Brush border enzyme

Which of the following is a water-soluble vitamin?

A) Vitamin B
B) Vitamin A
C) Vitamin D
D) Vitamin K

A) Vitamin B

Glycolysis occurs in the ______ of cells and is an _______ process.

cytosol; anaerobic

Which of the following is NOT a pathway in the oxidation of glucose?

A) glycolysis
B) Krebs cycle
C) gluconeogenesis
D) electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation

C) gluconeogenesis

Which hormone directs essentially all events of the absorptive state?

Insulin

What is the most essential role of the liver?

protein metabolism

The body is able to form glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. (True or False?)

True

Which hormone is called the "metabolic" hormone?

thyroxine

Which brain region is the main integrating center for thermoregulation?

Hypothalamus

Which of the following would only be found in the glomerular filtrate if the glomerular membrane were damaged?

A) protein
B) chloride
C) creatinine
D) glucose

A) protein

Where does most solute reabsorption occur in the nephron?

Proximal convoluted tubule

Approximately 80% of the energy used for active transport is devoted to the reabsorption of _______________.

sodium

What is the functional unit of the kidney?

Nephron

What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

a system that regulates the rate of filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure

What type of capillaries make up the glomerulus?

Fenestrated

In which part of the kidney is reabsorption (1) dependent upon the body's needs at the time, and (2) regulated by hormones?

Distal convoluted tubule

Chemicals that enhance urinary output are called _______________.

diuretics

The _______ keeps the urethra closed when urine is not being passed from the bladder, and prevents leaking between voiding.

internal urethral sphincter

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?

A) proteins
B) carbohydrates
C) lipids
D) starches

C) lipids

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the stomach?

A) The stomach mucosa is folded into rugae.
B) The stomach releases enzymes to digest carbohydrates.
C) The stomach has three layers of muscle in the muscularis tunic.
D) The stomach produces a double-layered coat of alkaline mucus.

B) The stomach releases enzymes to digest carbohydrates.

The major means of propelling food through the digestive tract is ___________.

peristalsis

It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________.

most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients

Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?

A) dextrinase
B) trypsin
C) amylase
D) lipase

B) trypsin

Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the ________.

conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid

_________ is the key hormone regulator of the absorptive state.

Insulin

Which part of the digestive system is the major location for absorption of the end products of digestion?

Small intestine

Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.

chief cells of the stomach

Which nutrient molecule is the pivotal fuel molecule in the oxidative pathways?

glucose

Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?

A) enteroendocrine cells
B) zymogenic cells
C) mucous neck cells
D) parietal cells

D) parietal cells

The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ________.

collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?

cholecystokinin

Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?

A) zymogenic cells
B) parietal cells
C) enteroendocrine cells
D) mucous neck cells

C) enteroendocrine cells

Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized?

A) proteins
B) vitamins and minerals
C) foods and beverages high in caffeine
D) fats

D) fats

True or False; The circular folds of the small intestine enhance absorption by causing the chyme to spiral, rather than to move in a straight line, as it passes through the small intestine.

True

Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ________.

glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

The primary function of cellular respiration is to ________.

break down food molecules and generate ATP

Define term: Peristalsis

Adjacent segments of alimentary tract organs alternately contract & relax, which moves food along the tract distally

Define term: Segmentation

Nonadjacent segments of alimentary tract organs alternately contract & relax, moving the food forward then backward.

When ______________ occurs, food mixing and food propulsion in small intestine slows.

segmentation

What are the three mechanical digestion mechanisms?

chewing (mouth)
churning (stomach)
segmentation (small intestine)

Chewing occurs in the...

mouth.

Churning occurs in the...

stomach.

Segmentation occurs in the...

small intestine.

Ingestion occurs in the...

mouth.

What are the main digestive system functions?

Ingestion
Propulsion
Digestion (mechanical & chemical)
Absorption
Defecation

What are the main mechanisms of propulsion?

swallowing (oropharynx) & peristalsis (esophagus, stomach, small intestine, & large intestine)

Where does swallowing occur?

oropharynx

Where does peristalsis occur?

Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Large intestine

Absorption occurs in the

small & large intestines (lymph & blood vessels)

Defecation occurs in the

anus

Peristalsis is a mechanism of what digestive function?

Propulsion

Segmentation is a mechanism of what digestive function?

Mechanical digestion

Neural reflex pathways are initiated by what kinds of external stimuli?

Sight, smell, taste, & thought of food

What is the function of the visceral / parietal peritoneum?

to lubricate organs so that they glide as they move; greatly reduces friction

The blood supply through digestion:

1. Arterial
2. Celiac trunk (hepatic, splenic, left gastric)
3. Mesenteric (inferior, superior)
4. Venous
5. Drains (superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, splenic, cystic)
6. Hepatic portal system
7. Liver
8. (departs via...) Hepatic vein

In terms of the digestive system, the blood supply drains to the ______________ & empties into the _________, and finally departs via ___________.

hepatic portal system; liver; hepatic vein

What are the changes in the 4 layers from mouth to anus of alimentary canal? (innermost to outermost)

1. Mucosa (lines lumen)
2. Submucosa (glands & nerves/arteries/veins)
3. Muscularis externa (longitudinal muscle & circular muscle)
4. Serosa (attachment site & protection)

What layer of the alimentary canal lines the lumen?

mucosa

What layer of the alimentary canal contains glands, nerves, arteries, and/or veins?

submucosa

What layer of the alimentary canal is known as the attachment site and aids in protection?

serosa

The myenteric nerve plexus controls motility through __________ & ____________.

segmentation; peristalsis

True or false; The submucosal nerve plexus is linked to the autonomic nervous system.

False (the myenteric nerve plexus is linked to the ANS)

What are the two types of secretory cells found in the salivary glands?

serous cells (watery secretion of enzymes & ions)
mucous cells (stringy, viscous solution)

Describe serous cells of salivary glands

Watery secretion containing enzymes & ions

Describe mucous cells of salivary glands

Stringy, viscous solution

Saliva is largely ________

water

Is saliva hypertonic, isotonic, or hypotonic?

Hypotonic

Is saliva acidic or basic?

slightly acidic

Saliva is slightly acidic due to its basic but varying components. What are these?

-Electrolytes (Na, Cl, HCO3, K, PO4)
-Salivary amylase
-Lingual lipase
-Mucin

What components of the saliva aid in protection?

-Lysozyme & IgA
-Defensins (local antibiotic) (specifically, cytokines)
-Metabolic wastes

What's the process of swallowing called?

deglutition

5 phases/steps of deglutition (swallowing)

1. The upper esophageal sphincter is contracted. During the buccal phase, the tongue presses against the hard palate, forcing the food bolus into the oropharynx where the involuntary phase begins.
2. The uvula and larynx rise to prevent food from entering respiratory passageways. The tongue blocks off the mouth. The upper esophageal sphincter relaxes, allowing food to enter esophagus.
3. The constrictor muscles of the pharynx contract, forcing food into the esophagus inferiorly. The upper esophageal sphincter contracts (closes) after entry
4. Food is moved through the esophagus to the stomach by peristalsis.
5. The gastroesophageal sphincter opens, and food enters the stomach.

During the __________ phase, the tongue presses against the hard palate, forcing the food bolus into the oropharynx where the involuntary phase begins.

the buccal phase

Food is moved through the esophagus to the stomach by...

peristalsis.

When the ____________ opens, food enters the stomach.

gastroesophageal sphincter

________ present in saliva helps dissolve food so it can be tasted & moistens it so tongue can compact it into a bolus.

Mucus

Oral cavity and teeth are lubricated & cleansed by

saliva.

Food is voluntarily placed into mouth through what major digestive function?

Ingestion

The voluntary buccal phase of deglutition (swallowing) is initiated by the tongue & propels food into the pharynx during what major digestive function?

Propulsion

Anatomical term meaning "chewing"

mastication

Mastication (chewing) by teeth & movements by tongue describes major digestive function?

Mechanical digestion

Peristaltic waves move food bolus to stomach, thus accomplishing involuntary (pharyngeal-esophagus) phase of deglutition during waht major digestive function?

Propulsion

Peristaltic waves mix food with gastric juice & propel it into the duodenum via what major digestive function?

Mechanical digestion

Digestion of proteins begun by pepsin is done via what major digestive function?

Chemical digestion

What are known as primarily food chutes?

Pharynx & esophagus

Mucus in stomach is produced to lubricate & protect stomach from _________.

self-digestion

________________ produced in stomach is required for the intestinal absorption of vitamin B12.

Intrinsic factor

The muscularis externa of the stomach is different from other areas/organs of the body. What's different?

It has a longitudinal layer, circular layer, AND *Oblique Layer

What are the three layers of the mucosa of the stomach?

Surface epithelium
Lamina propria
Muscularis mucosae

What cells of the mucosa produce intrinsic factor, which is needed for vitamin B12 absorption?

Parietal cells

Chief cells of mucosa produce...

pepsinogen

___________ + ___________ = pepsin

pepsinogen + HCl = pepsin

_______________ is the protein digesting enzyme.

Pepsin

Histamine, serotonin, somatostatin, & gastrin are secreted into interstitial fluid by what cells?

Enteroendocrine cells (G)

Enteroendocrine cells (G) secrete its products into the....

interstitial fluid

____________ stimulates secretions / motility.

Gastrin

What are the vague possible causes of a stomach ulcer?

-Excess HCl production
-Smoking
-Spicy food
-Alcohol
-Stress

What are the two main causes of gastric ulcers?

NSAID & helicobacter pylori (H. pylori bacteria)

Chemicals released from NSAID & H. pylori bacteria do what?

-Reduce HCl
-Release ammonia
-Disrupt adhesion
-Release cytotoxin
-Promote inflammation

The holding area for digested food.

The stomach

True or False; The stomach degrades food both chemically & physically.

True

The stomach degrades food both chemically & physically into __________.

chyme

The stomach delivers chyme to the small intestine via ...

the duodenum.

T/F: In the stomach, alcohol & aspirin pass easily into mucosa.

True

What are the 3 peristaltic waves in the stomach?

1. Propulsion
2. Grinding
3. Retropulsion

During what peristaltic wave is the pyloric valve slightly opened?

Retropulsion

True or false; Peristalsis is unidirectional.

False; it is bidirectional

T/F: Microvilli decrease surface area for digestion and absorption.

false; increase

In the small intestine, the mucosa changes. What are the changes?

-Circular folds (spiral through lumen)
-Microvilli
-Villi
-Brush border enzymes
-Pits
-Peyer's patches
-Capillary bed
-Lacteal

The circular folds of small intestine create a ________ flow.

slow

A ____________ is a lymph capillary of the small intestine.

lacteal

What enzymes digest proteins & carbohydrates?

Brush border enzymes

The pancreas empties into the ___________.

duodenum

The _____________ of the pancreas produces insulin & glucagon.

Islets of Langerhans

Pancreatic juice is mostly...

water.

Blood draining for pancreas is __________.

acidic (pH 8.0)

Pancreatic juice contains zymogen granules collectively called ___________.

protease (trypsin, carboxypeptidase, chymotrypsin, amylase, lipase, nuclease)

The large intestine empties through the...

anus.

The large intestine absorbs...

water
Na+ / K+
Vitamin K (synthesized)
B couples vitamins
Teniae coli
Haustra (puckers)
Epiploic appendages

Alimentary canal changes of the rectum

-Stratified squamous epithelium
-High abrasion
-Rectal valves
-Internal/External sphincters

What are the 6 major nutrient categories?

-Grains
-Vegetables
-Fruits
-Oils
-Milk
-Meat & beans

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