more electron attracting power of the larger nuclear charge as we move to the right, and ttracting power of the nucleus is sheilded by the inner electron shells increasingly as the group is descended
why does electronegativity possess its properties?
increases from right to left and up
the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom
the larger halogens have greater Van der Waals forces holding the molecules together as they have more electrons
why does the melting point increase from F to I?
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
when atoms are attracted to achieve stability
fill, half-fill, p, d
to achieve some stability, electrons _____ and ________ the _ and _ orbitals
easily lose, cations
metals _______ electrons, becoming ______
nonmetals _______ electrons, becoming ______
attractive forces between DIFFERENT molecules
attractive forces WITHIN molecules
no dipoles present
a covalent bond in which both electrons are provided by one of the atoms
example of a molecule containing a coordinate bond
2 or more variations; can move double bonds
the chemical bonding that results form the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons
metallic bonds have a ______ hold on their electrons
will give up their electrons if forced to, but with resistance
polar compounds have a ________ melting and boiling point
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1
electron configuration for potassium (K)
electrons fill orbitals bottom up
electrons first fill orbitals halfway before placing two electrons together
measure of attraction of a nucleus on its electrons
the bigger an atom gets, the _______ it loses its electrons
intra (formula unit)
ionic bonds are types of ______-molecular bonds
which are better conductors: ionic or covalent compounds?
a structural formula in which electrons are represented by dots; dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent pairs in covalent bonds.
valence shell electron pair repulsion
a theory stating that the three-dimensional molecular geometry about some central atom is determined by the elctronic repulsion between its bonding and nonbonding electron pairs.
van der Waals forces
when molecules are close together, a slight attraction can develop between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms
strongest: hydrogen bond ; weakest: van der Waals forces
which inter-molecular bond is the strongest? weakest?
polar solvents dissolve _______ solutes
during metallic bonding, the whole system of ions and electrons has the lowest energy when the ions are arranged in a ___________
regular arrangement of metal ions
how is energy conducted through a metal?
energy is conducted through a piece of metal as the more energetic (hotter) electrons collide with and speed up the slower, less energetic (colder) electrons
the ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into thin sheets
capable of being shaped or bent or drawn out
why are metals malleable and ductile?
when a metal is deformed, layers of metal ions can slip past one another without breaking up the whole structure
a mixture containing two or more metallic elements or metallic and nonmetallic elements usually fused together or dissolving into each other when molten
metals are made of which subunit?
metals are said to be ___________
repeating pattern of positive and negative ions
melting weakens the influence of the forces of attraction between the oppositely charged ions
how does melting affect an ionic compound?
melting point of ionic bonds is generally _______, indicating that the force of attraction is _________
attraction between an ion and a dipole
for an ionic compound to dissolve, the attractions between water molecules and the ions must be comparable with the energy required to ________ the ions
ionic compounds conduct electricity when ________ or ________ in water
diamonds ________ conduct electricity and graphite _______
delocalization _________ a molecule or ion
the number of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal
simple cubic structure
this crystal structure results when square layers are placed exactly one on top another
body-centered cubic structure
the ions in each square layer can be arranged to fit into the hollows between the ions in the layer immediately below
hexagonal close-packed structure
hexagonal layers can be stacked one on another in a alternating sequence
cubic close-packed structure
hexagonal close-packed structure, but instead the third layer fits over the hallows of both previous layers