What does CE and BCE stand for?
CE: Common Era BCE: Before Common Era
What was used previously? What do the abbreviations stand for?
AD and BC. AD: Anno Domini and BC: Before Christ.
Why did we stop using the old system?
It was racist to those who were not Christian. (2 thirds of the world)
What book did Charles Darwin write?
Origin of Species.
What does binomial nomenclature mean technically and generally?
to name giving. To give names to races.
Describe how a Neanderthal would look
Short and Stout.
What is bipedalism?
Walking on 2 legs.
How did the Neanderthals act 'humane'?
They buried their dead, put flowers on their graves and cooked in pits.
Why was arthritis such an misleading factor in the first fossils?
Because it made Neanderthals look stooped, contributing to the caveman aspect.
What is the Out of Africa Theory?
A theory that says humans originated from Africa.
How do we know Neanderthals and humans could interbreed? Why is this so significant?
Because someone found a half human-half Neanderthal child in Lisbon, Portugal. Because if Humans and Neanderthals could breed, they couldn't be all that different.
What was the Piltdown Hoax?
Charles Dawson fused together an Orang-utan and a Human skull to make the Neanderthals seem less human.
Why were people so uncomfortable with the idea that humans evolved from Africa?
Because they had African slaves and didn't want to let them go.
According to microbiologists, when did human beings first appear?
200 000 YA.
How can we prove that human beings first evolved in Africa?
Modern human fossils were found in Africa.
What was the base of Ghassul's economy?
Olives and olive oil.
What did Ghassul do with Olives?
They sold it for a great profit because no one else had it.
What was Olive's nickname? What were its uses?
Cooking and Oil lamps.
What was salt's nickname? Why was it so valuable? How does this value still resonate in the English language today?
White Gold. It preserved food. Salary.
Why would people have wanted to wear wool instead of linen?
Wool could absorb dye so as to show one's social status.
How did early people have access to copper?
They used Green Malachite.
How did early people make bronze?
Tin + Copper
What new metal was introduced after bronze that was much stronger than the other two? What was the benefit and the cost of this metal?
Iron. Helped farmers with cheap tools, hurt society with cheap weapons.
Who was Gilgamesh?
A mythical ruler of a city who was supposedly Half-God.
Who was Hammurabi? Describe his code of laws.
An ancient Babylonian King. They were very harsh.
Identify the ancient codes of law, describing each very basically. Make certain to know their dates/order as well
Urukagina, very harsh laws, Hammurabi, very harsh laws, Urnammu, protected the poor, The Ten Commandments, an eye for an eye.
Why in your opinion were so many ancient laws so harsh?
Because ancient rulers didn't realize that anyone but themselves was important.
Name the important rivers of the ancient world, identifying what group settled on its shores.
Yellow, Chinese, Yangtze, Chinese, Nile, Egyptian, Tigris, Mesopotamian, Euphrates, Mesopotamian.
What does civis mean?
What do we call artificially moving water for human purposes?
What were the duties of a ruler?
Levy taxes, wage wars, he was the high priest.
What language means Triangle or wedge-shaped?
What is a stylus?
A small, rounded object used to write in clay.
What is the Fertile Crescent?
A strip of land shaped like a crescent in Mesopotamia.
Name two Sumerian cities
Ur and Lagash.
The calendar was useful for what purpose?
Fertilization of crops.
Who used the number 60 as their base and how does it carry on today (3 ways)
Sumerians, Seconds, circle, hour.
Who were the Akkadains?
They came from the North, and their leader Sargon established the first Empire.
Who was the Amorite's most famous leader? Most famous city?
What areas did the Hittites control?
Syria, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia.
What was the Hittites secret weapon?
Which capital city boasted an aqueduct?
What are some key factors in the Persian religion?
1, the struggle between good and evil, 2, free will, 3, an afterlife (heaven)
How did Persian religion influence world religions today?
It introduced Monotheism into the world, and it's now very popular.
What was the first idea or concept ever written down?
Why was the Behistun inscription so significant?
It contained Old Persian, ElamiteàÍ, and Babylonian and seeing as it said the exact same thing in all these languages, it helped us learn them.
What rivers are significant to the Chinese civilizations?
Yellow and Yangtze.
What is a dynasty?
What is a dynasty?
How did the China's faulty techniques and weapons affect their history?
They were invaded regularly.
When was the Shang Dynasty?
How did the Chou period end?
With all the states fighting against each other for kingship.
In 221 BCE, who was victorious in China?
The Ch'in Family.
How did the Chinese consolidate and unite their nation?
Through unification of a written language.
Who founded the Mighty Han Dynasty?
Why was paper important to the Chinese?
It fuelled the arts, literature and written histories.
How far did the Chinese trade and travel at the time of the New Kingdom?
To North Korea, Japan, India and Central Asia.
Who were the Mongols?
Genghis Khan and his barbarian horde.
Who were the Mongols two most famous leaders?
Genghis and Kublai Khan.
Why did the Mongols not change Chinese society too much?
There was no reason to change it, it was already almost perfect.
How did the Romans and the Greeks see the Egyptians?
As their "Grandfathers".
What transpired in Egypt between c 3200-2300 BCE?
30 Dynasties of Egyptian rule (3000 yrs).
Why did the Egyptians' depend on the Nile?
Because it was the only source of water in all of Egypt.
Why were the Egyptians the first great stone builders?
Because they had no materials to build with other then stone.
What was the reasoning for the strong focus of Egyptians on the afterlife?
Because, to be blunt, their before life sucked.
What three things did the Egyptians not use when building the pyramids?
Wood, they didn't build them on the east side, only on the west (sundial), they wouldn't
What uses did the pyramid have?
They could be a slide, a sundial, a calendar, and a tomb.
What side of the Nile were pyramids on? Why?
The west side. Because the sun sets in the west.
What was the Step Pyramid of Saqqara?
It was the first great stone building in the Whole World.
How many pyramids are there in Egypt?
How else was the Nile important to pyramid building?
The Egyptians used ships to transport stone from 1 side of the Nile to the other, and Pyramids could only be built on the west side so that it was a sundial and it was where the sun set.
How did Alexander the Great affect Egypt?
He ended 30 dynasties (3000 yrs) of Egyptian rule.
What were some of the biggest innovations of the Egyptians?
Government, calendar, Monotheism.
What were Karnak and Luxor important for?
They were sites of Temples.
What were the capitals of the old and Middle Kingdoms?
What was a pharaoh?
A cup of god (the ruler of Egypt, said to be part-God).
When did the Egyptian civilization begin?
Why was Egypt more stable than other civilizations, even though it's 9/10s desert?
Because of it's natural defences (the Mediterranean sea and the desert) it was almost impossible to invade.
Who was Osiris?
God of the Afterlife.
Who was his wife? His son? What were they each in charge of? How would you recognize them if you saw them?
Isis. Horus. Isis: Motherhood. Horus: Sky. Horus has a falcon head. Isis has a solar disk, cow horns, and an ankh.
Red was connected to what god? What was he in charge of?
Set. The Desert.
Who was Thoth closely connected to? What was her job?
Ma'at. She decided who went where if their scale of good and bad deeds was even.
What was her symbol?
Ma'at's symbol was a feather.
Explain the number 3 and 7 in Egyptian mythology.
They mean a complete set (the 3 knots of Isis and the 7 alligators).
How were Greek myths originally passed on?
From mouth to mouth.
What does the word mythology actually mean?
speech (from the word Mythos).
Name the Twelve Olympians, identifying their area of specialty.
Apollo: Sun and archery, Zeus: Sky, Hera: Motherhood, Poseidon: Sea and Earthquakes, Demeter: Fertility, Hestia: Hearth, Aphrodite: Love, Ares: War, Artemis: Hunt, Athena: Wisdom, Hephaestus: Fire, Hermes: Messenger, Thieves.
What was the importance of Persephone's annual vacation to the Greeks?
It was what made winter happen.
Who is connected to the owl? Deer? Vulture? Horses? Dove or Swan?
Athena, Artemis, Ares, Poseidon, Aphrodite.
How many muses are there? What are their names? What are they responsible for?
9. Calliope: Epic Poetry, Clio: History, Erato: Lyric Poetry, Euterpe: Music, Melpommene: Tragedy, Polyhymnia: Coral Poetry, Terpsichore: Dance, Thalia: Comedy, Urania: Astronomy.
Why was Apollo important to the muses?
He was their leader.
Who was Socrates and what was the ideal that he focused on?
He was a famous Greek thinker, The Ideal of truth was his main focus.
When did Plato live?
Who did Plato study under?
What did he found?
The Academy (The Grove of Trees) in Athens.
What was his most famous book?
What ideal did he deal with?
Nurture vs. Nature.
When did Aristotle live?
what did Aristotle study?
anatomy, geology, physics.
What is the golden mean?
A perfect balance between 2 extremes.
How did Aristotle differ from Socrates?
Believed in only what he could see, not truth.
What were some of the schools of thought in ancient Greece?
Cynicism, Eclecticism, scepticism.
Who were the Spartans?
They were a war-based country in ancient Greece with formidable fighting techniques.
Why were the Spartans not allowed to write?
Spartans were concerned with writing because it gave less time fir fighting
Who was in Sparta's army?
Every citizen from 20-60 years of age.
What were some of the tasks that Spartan citizens were banned from?
Farming, writing, trading.
What is a phalanx?
A Phalanx is a fighting formation using shields and working together.
Identify each of the following groups in Sparta: citizens, periokoi, helots
Citizens: men in Sparta who fulfilled or were fulfilling military responsibilities. Periokoi: Free non-citizens who were self-governed and allowed to leave the polis and were responsible for all the things the citizens couldn't do. Helots: people conquered by Sparta who worked the land.
What was the kryteia?
Annual slaughter of Helots so as to insure that no one got any ideas.
Translate the following phrases: Cogito ergo sum Dum spiro spero Sic friatur crustum dolce Modo vincis, modo vinceris Id imperfectum manet dum confectum erit
1: I think therefore I am. 2: While I breathe, I hope. 3: that's the way the cookie crumbles. 4: Win some, lose some. 5: It isn't over 'till it's written (or until the fat lady sings J).
What was happening in Athens from 215-213 BCE?
The first Macedonian war with Phillip the fifth.
Who was Archimedes?
The most famous Athenian Thinker/Scientist and helped protect Athens from the Romans.
Identify Archimedes' inventions.
Archimedes Water Claw, The Death Ray, Compound Pulleys, Laws of Flotation.
Who was Draco?
An early ruler of Athens, very harsh, wrote the first Athenian Law Book, Almost all offences were punished with death (including stealing an apple and idleness).
Who could be a citizen in Athens?
Males with money, land. Born in Athens and over 30 yrs of age.
Who were the Metics?
Free, Non-Citizens with a little money/influence, NOT born in the Polis.
Who came first: the Minoans or the Mycenaeans?
What natural disaster struck the Minoans?
Name 4 sites of Minoan sites.
Knossos, Malia, Phastos, Kat0-Zakros.
What two things did the Minoans trade?
Tin and Saffron.
Who was Homer?
A famous writer and poet.
What two books did Homer write? (loosely as he did not actually write his words down)
The Iliad and The Odyssey.
Who was Agamemnon?
The King of Mycenae.
Who discovered his mask? What else did he find?
Heinrich Schliemann. Troy.
Where were the most important Greek oracles found?
Who is the 'father of history'?
What is an oligarchy?
ruled by few
What did Plutarch say about Draco?
that his laws were written in blood, not ink.
How could the Trojan horse actually have existed?
A tribute to Poseidon or a battering ram/cover.
How did Athens differ from Sparta?
Sparta was all about war, Athens was all about learning.
Why is it important that the Greek deities have human heads?
Because The Gods were there to teach them a direct lesson, they were like Gods, but lesser.
What are two names for fortune tellers in ancient Greece?
Soothsayers and Oracles
What happened at Marathon?
Darius was defeated.
How did the Peloponnesian war affect the Greek world?
Badly. it wakened them and made them sitiing ducks for invasion.
What is a hoplite?
A military formation made up of rows.
What were some of Alexander's interests?
Art, poetry, philosophy and science.
What did he sleep with under his pillow, according to legend?
The Odyssey and a dagger.
How did Alexander's death change the known world in 323 BCE?
He ensured the Greek world survived.
What had he accomplished in his short life?
He had reinstated his countries power, Expanded it's borders farther than anyone had done before him, and in the shortest time of anyone before him.