a person of mixed European and Native American heritage
a Spanish conqueror of the Americas
laborer who agreed to work without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for passage to America
The first permanent English settlement in the New World; during its first few years, it suffered from malaria
(1588-1649) first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
Salem witch trials
1692-Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hung as witches. Most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
the most numerous group of newcomers. Scottish Presbyterians who had settled in northern Ireland (in the province of Ulster) in the early 17th century.
American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove.
Seven Years' War
Known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
This European economic policy saw colonies as an important source of raw materials for the mother country's benefit, and little else. Colonies were supposed to buy finished goods from the mother country. This policy by the English government often angered the colonists, ultimately leading to the American Revolution.
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington, he spearheaded the government's Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States.
Embargo Act of 1807
This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. It also hurt the national economy, so it was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act.
American jurist and politician who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped establish the practice of judicial review.
A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Treaty that ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. Territory that had been captured during the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Panic of 1819
after a period of economic boom after the War of 1812, where the prices of farm goods and land increased rapidly, and the wildcat and state banks gave easy credit to settlers and speculators, the National Bank finally decided to tighten credit, call in loans, and foreclose on mortgages. In effect, there was a series of failures by state banks, and the result was a financial panic and depression.
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
John C. Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass. He was therefore an important part for the buildup of American literature and breaking the traditional rhyme method in writing poetry.
A Mormon leader that led his oppressed followers to Utah in 1846. Under Young's management, his Mormon community became a prosperous frontier theocracy and a cooperative commonwealth. He became the territorial governor in 1850. Unable to control the hierarchy of Young, Washington sent a federal army in 1857 against the harassing Mormons.
A New England teacher and author who spoke against the inhumane treatment of insane prisoners, ca. 1830's. People who suffered from insanity were treated worse than normal criminals. Dorothea Dix traveled over 60,000 miles in 8 years gathering information for her reports, reports that brought about changes in treatment, and also the concept that insanity was a disease of the mind, not a willfully perverse act by an individual.
Slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God. His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery.
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
one of the most prominent African American figures in the abolitionist movement. He escaped from slavery in Maryland, was a great thinker and speaker. He published his own antislavery newspaper called the "North Star" and wrote an autobiography that was published in 1845.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
February 2, 1848. The agreement between President Polk and the new Mexican government for Mexico to cede California and New Mexico to the US and acknowledge the Rio Grand as the boundary of Texas. In return, the US promised to assume any financial claims its new citizens had against Mexico and to pay the Mexicans $15 million.
James K. Polk
Democrat elected president in election of 1844. Was an advocate of Manifest Destiny, he pursued a war with Mexico and gained the Oregon territory. He ordered U.S. troops into the disputed territory below the Nueces and Rio Grande Rivers led to war with Mexico.
Stephen A. Douglas
Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the Kansas-Nebreaska Act and the Freeport Doctrine
Law allowing the Louisiana Purchase territory to be divided into two territories and allowed settlers to decide slavery issues int he territories by popular sovereignty. This act in effect repeals the Missouri Compromise.
American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, a book about a slave who is treated badly, in 1852. The book persuaded more people, particularly Northerners, to become anti-slavery.
purchase made by the United States from Mexico in 1853 for $10 million by president Franklin Pierce
California Gold Rush
Hundreds of thousands of people from around the world, mostly young men, came to California in 1849 after gold was discovered in search of instant riches.
First and only president of the Confederacy. He was ax ex senator from Mississippi and a Secretary of War.
Radical Republican; gave a speech in may 1856 called " the Crime Against Kansas" militant opponent of slavery, beat with a cane by Preston Brooks after the speech, collapsed unconscious and couldn't return to senate for 4 years, symbol throughout the north.
Battle of Gettysburg
June, 1863; Battle in Pennsylvania between armies led by Lee (Confederate) and George Meade (Union) that was considered the turning point in the Civil War. Lee retreats but Meade fails to pursue and the war goes on for two more years.
Robert E. Lee
A General for the confederates, fought many battles. One of his main plans towards the end of the civil war was to wait for a new president to come into office to make peace with. Fought Peninsular Campaign, 2nd battle of Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville (with Jackson), and Gettysburg.
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
Agency established by the federal government in the South to take care of the newly freed slaves. The agency was to provide food, clothes, shelter, and education.
Tenure of Office Act
In 1867 this Act was passed which limited the President's power by prohibiting the President from removing civil officers without Senate consent. Goal was to bar Johnson from firing Secretary of War Stanton.
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.
Little Big Horn
In 1876, Colonel George A. Custer and 260 of his men were killed by Sioux Indians led by Sitting Bull at this battle in southern Montana. "Custer's Last Stand" became enshrined in American mythology as a symbol of the brutality of the Indian wars, although there is substantial evidence that Custer acted recklessly in attacking the large Indian encampment.
Jim Crow Laws
laws which promoted segregation, or the separation of people based on race. These laws worked primarily to restricted the rights of African Americans to use certain schools and public facilities, usually the good ones; to vote; find decent employment and associate with anyone of their own choosing. These laws did not make life "separate but equal," but only served to exclude African Americans and others from exercising their rights as American citizens. In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), the US Supreme Court ruled that Jim Crow laws were unconstitutional. It took many years and much effort, however, before Jim Crow laws would be overturned across the country.