Hepatitus B vaccine; monovalent=all newborns; if mom=HBsAg-(+) then HepB+HBIG= 12hrs; mom=HBs Ag- (unknown)= only HepB= 12hrs and test mom (HBIG no later than 1wk); Second dose=1-2mths; Final >24wks then test HBs-Ag= 9-18mths; => cirrhosis or liver cancer; deltoid and vastus lateralis, NOT dorsogluteal; Contra= Yeast preservatives reactivity, pregnancy, preterm birth;
Rotavirus Vaccine; >6-12wks NO later; Final dose by 32wks No later; Contra= analphylaxis, HIV, immuniodeficiency (radiation, drugs, leukemia, blood disorders, cancer), gastroenteritis, ferile, intussusception, pregnancy, hx of rota, intussusception, fever;
Diptheria, tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine; >6wks; 4th as early as 12months if 6mths from 3rd; Final @4-6yrs; diptheria=> respiratory nasopharyngitis or obstructive paryngotracheitis, vaginal otic conjunctival or cutaneous lesions; pertussis=neurologic contraindications (encephalopathy), inconsolable crying, fam hx for seizures, SIDS;
Haemophilus influenza type b conjugate vaccine; >6wks; If PRP-OMP at 2-4mths then 6mths not req.; TriHIBit= booster@>12mths not for primary; => menengitis, epiglottitis, pneumonia, septic arthritis and sepsis; Contra= none;
Pneumoccocal Vaccine; >6wks; => seticemia, meningitis, otitis media, sinusitis and pneumonia; Contra= LBWI, anaphylaxis, PPV within 2mths; minor illness, Upper respiratory inf., allergic rhinitis;
trivalent inactivated influenza; >6mths; Contra= analphylaxis (eggs), GBS within 6wks, Pregnancy
measles, mumps, rubella; >12mths; 2nd @4-6yrs; contraindication= pregnancy, recent immunoglobulin, simultaneous PPD, altered immunodeficiency, Breastfeeding, HIV, reaction to eggs or neomycin, thrombocytopenia;
Varicella Vaccine; >12mths; 2nd@ 4-6yrs; (live attenuated); together or 1 month apart from MMR; Contra= pregnancy, breastfeeding, anaphylaxis (neomycin/gelatin), recent immunoglobulin, HIV, immunodeficiency, corticosteroids;
Hepatitus A; >12mths; 2nd @6mths apart; fecal-oral route= abrupt, fever, malaise, anorexia, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark urine, and jaundice;
MCV4 and MPSV4
Meningococcal Vaccine; >2yrs; => amputations, skin scarring, hearing loss, and neurologic disabilities; Contra= Hx encephalopathy, GBS (6wks), progressive neuropathy (epilepsy), fever, Rx's to Dtap, Brachial neuritis, immunosuppresion, HIV, Antibiotic use, minor illness;
inactivated poliovius vaccine; contraindication= anaphylaxis, pregnancy, breastfeeding, diarrhea;
Human papilloma vaccine; Contra= pregnancy, yeast Rx, immunosuppressed female, minor acute illness, lactation,
Factors for Growth and Development
Genetics, Nutrition, Prenatal, Environmental Factors, Family and community, Cultural Factors, Socioeconomic status
Initiative vs. Guilt
Preschooler- 3y-6y; plays and lives life to the fullest, sense of accomplishment; rivalry with same sex parent.
BM/Formula + cereal; 1st solid food= juice, strained fruits, strained veg, meats, yogurts (soy 1st). 1 new item 3-5days.
junior foods, cheerios, crackers, small pieces of fruit; NO grapes, carrots, raisins, marshmallows, hot dogs or honey.
Vomiting and Diarrhea in the newborn
very dangerous; body comp. 75-80% water mostly ECF=> rapid dehydration.
Development Benchmarks- 3m
some head lag, regards hand, pulling motion, interest in environment, recognition to objects and faces, vocalization= cooing, babble, chuckles;
Development Benchmarks- 5m
palmer graps, sitting, rolls side to side, teeth, BW dbl, Smiles, fam from strangers, playful, vowels.
Development Benchmarks- 6m
Pincer grasp small object and manipulations, Tripod position, rolls back to abdomen, stranger anxiety, arms out, likes and dislikes, peek a boo, vocal imitation.
Development Benchmarks- 7m
Hand to hand tranfer, bears weight on feet, imitates acts, chained syllables (dada),
Development Benchmarks- 10m
demontrates independence= dressing, feeding; locomotion, prone to supine position, sits by falling on butt, follows picture books, stops behavior to "NO"
Development Benchmarks- 11m
Explores, walks holding furniture, plays games, shakes head to "NO", imitates speech;
Development Benchmarks- 12m
Turns pages in book, walks w/ 1 hand, determined walking, BW 3x, Ant Fon closes, Name recognition, Meaning comprehension, imitates animal sounds, comprehends simple commands;
identifiable cause; common= CHD, DF, HIV, Metabolic Syndrome; less common= endocrine, neurologic condition or lesions and GERD malabsorption syndrome.
Non-Identifiable medical causes; maybe Psychological= Accidental, Neglectful, Deliberate;
Physical Assessments in FTT
weight falls below 5th%, decline in growth curve, delays in developmental milestones, language delays, decreased muscle mass, abdominal distention, hypotonic, weakness, feeding and dietary hx;
Diagnostic Testing in FTT
Comprehensive hx, Developmental Sx, Nutritional Sx, Growth Curve, Urinalysis, Swerat CL Test, Stool specimen, T4;
Sudden infant death syndrome; leading cause of death in infants 90% of cases >6m; More common= M, 2-4m, in winter or spring.
Factors of SIDS
ALTE, cyanosis, respiratory distress, preemie, multiple births, exposure to smoking, poor prenatal care, poor weight gain of mom, brainstem defect, prone sleeping, sibling with SIDS, irish twins, soft bleeding, use of pillows;
Apparent Life Threatening Event; apnea, change in color (pallor, cyanosis, redness), change in muscle tone (usually hypotonia), choking, gagging, or coughing, and which usually involves a significant intervention and even cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by the caregiver who witnesses the event
Post SIDS interventions
contact fam, friends, clergy; SIDS support group referral; Compassionate/Empathetic Care; Fam advocacy in ER, Allow time, take hand/foot prints, locks of hair and photos;
Leading causes of Infants Death
Congenital anomalies, Complications of prematurity, shaken baby syndrome, neonatal infections, Accidental (MVA, drowning);
lye, acid, strong cleaning products; assess and manage airway, do not induce vomiting; gastric lavage and NS.
OTC, Rx meds, simple cleaners, plants, alcohol; Do Not induce vomiting, administer activated charcoal, manage effects of substance ingested.
Prevention of Poisoning
keep out of reach, discard old medications, do no buy large size OTC drugs, store things in original containers, never tell children that medication is "candy"
Sources of Lead poisoning
pipes, paint, soil, dust near industries and roadways, ceramic ware, leaded gas, folk remedies, candy from mexico.
Effects of Lead poisoning
interferes with making hemoglogin, anemia; damages proximal tubules= glucosuria, proteinuria, ketonuria, chelating agents; Nuerologic= blocks calcium= impulsive, hyperactive, clumsy, speech.
provide family with lead poisoning education, follow-up testing, and social service referral if necessary.
Provide family with lead poisoning education (dietary and environmental), follow-up testing, and social service referral as needed; if BLL persists, initiate actions for BLL of 20 to 44mcg/dl.
provide coordination of care, clinical management, environmental investigation and lead hazard control.
within 48 hours, provide coordination of care and clinical management, including treatment, environmental investigation and lead hazard control. The child must not remain in a lead-hazardous environment if resolution is to occur.
Immediately provide medical treatment and begin coordination of care, clinical management, environmental investigation, and lead hazard control.
always in back seat, disable airbags for small children, flat seat belts and straps, appropriate clothing.
Age 4- Gross Motor Skills
skip/hop on one foot, catch a ball, throw a ball overhand, and walk down stairs alternating.
Age 5- Gross Motor Skills
preschooler skips on alternating feet, jumps rope, skates with good balance.
Stage of Industry...
attitude's towards work, skill development, independence, goal achievement, peer approval is important.
glascow, cranial nerves, natural state, LOC, spontaneous movement and reactions. = playful, irritable, cranky.
developmental dysplasia of the hip- use Ortolani and Barlow tests- abducting the thighs to test the hip for subluxation or dislocation. [other signs= shortening of limb asymmetric thigh and gluteal folds, or broadening of perineum]