Civil War: Unit 2 Test

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Clara Barton

Established Red Cross and was a nurse in the war.

William H. Seward

Secretary of State

"Billy Yank"

Typical Union Soldier

"Johnny Reb"

Typical Confederate Soldier

King Cotton

Confederates hoped cotton would bring England to their aid for use of cotton so their industries wouldn't plumet

Confederacy

Fighting for slavery and sucession. The South.

Draft Riots

Mostly in NY, and small occurences elsewhere. The men didn't want to be drafted. "Down with Lincoln!" "Down with the draft!"

Border States

Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and later West Virgina that somewhat illegal separated from Virginia in mid-1861

Fort Sumter

Square-walled at Charlston Harbor, with less than 100 men. Tried to provide provisions to the men, but the Confederates believed it was being reinforced. It was attacked on April 12, 1861. This is where the war started.

Alabama

Commerce-raider built in Britain for the Confederates. Escaped in 1862 to the Portugese Azores, and took weapons.

Union

Fighting for union of the states (United States) and later turned into a cause for the abolition of slavery. The North.

Trent Affair

Late 1861. A Union warship pulled over a British mail steamer north of Cuba. They forcibly removed two Confederate diplomats bound for Europe. Prisoners were later released after slow com helped everyone cool down. *The taking hostage of 2 Confederate emissaries to Great Britain

National Banking System

Financial landmark. Authorized by Congress in 1863. Stimulant to govt bond sales. Establish a standard bank-note currency. First significiant step toward a unified banking network since 1836. 50 years long until replaced by the Federal Reserve System in 1913.

Morrill Tariff Act

Congress passed early in 1861. Increased existing tax some 5-10%. Moderate rates soon pushed up by necessities of war. Partly to raise additional revenue and to provide more protection for the prosperous manufacturers who were being plucked by the new internal taxes. *Tax passed that increased funding for Union and inflation for confederacy.

Martial Law

*The body of law imposed by the military over civilian affairs (usually in time of war or civil crisis)
Used in Maryland to keep them from sucession because they would cut off the North from Washington. Also applied to WA and Missouri. Unionists (civil war inside the Civil War).

Jefferson Davis

President of the Confederacy. Sharp-featured, tense, humorless, legalistic, and stubborn. Somewhat imperious and inclined to defy rather than lead public opinion. Suffered from neuralgia and other nervous disorders. Overworked himself with the details of both civil govt and military operations.

Abraham Lincoln "Honest Abe"

Inexperienced prairie politician. Served 1861-1865, re-elected for 1865-1869, but he was assassinated in 1865. Passed Emancipation Proclamation. He worked for public opinion. Tactful, quiet, patient, yet firm.

E. defied rather than was led by public opinion.

As leader of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis
a. enjoyed real personal popularity despite the South's loss.
b. was a poor administrator.
c. developed a good relationship with his congress.
d. effectively articulated southern ideals.
e. defied rather than was led by public opinion.

A. of the South's emphasis on states' rights.

As president of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis did not exercise the arbitrary power wielded by Abraham Lincoln because
a. of the South's emphasis on states' rights.
b. there was such strong agreement on policy in the South.
c. he did not believe in strong executive action.
d. Lee's insistence on keeping his army out of politics.
e. the Confederate Constitution gave him all the power he needed.

E. refused to implement a draft, or conscription law, during the war.

In Lincoln's attempts to preserve the Union, he did all of the following questionable actions as president except
a. proclaimed a blockade of the Southern ports.
b. increased the size of the federal army.
c. suspended the writ of habeas corpus.
d. advanced federal funds to private citizens without authorization.
e. refused to implement a draft, or conscription law, during the war.

E. was the first significant step toward a unified banking network since 1836.

The Union's establishment of the National Banking System
a. led to the issuance of depreciated paper money.
b. established the gold standard in the United States.
c. resulted in the reestablishment of the Bank of the United States.
d. lasted only during the Civil War.
e. was the first significant step toward a unified banking network since 1836.

E. a middle of the road solution.

President Lincoln's decision on what to do about the situation at Fort Sumter in the first weeks of his administration can best be characterized as
a. ill thought out.
b. rash and hotheaded.
c. the only possible option.
d. a strategic blunder.
e. a middle of the road solution.

B. the South attacked Fort Sumter.

In 1861, many Northerners were willing to allow Southern states to leave the Union until
a. John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry.
b. the South attacked Fort Sumter.
c. Robert E. Lee was named to head the potential new nation's army.
d. South Carolina seceded from the United States.
e. Virginia and Tennessee joined the seceding states.

D. detached personally from the war.

Johnny Reb tended to be all of the following except
a. jocular.
b. emotional.
c. religious.
d. detached personally from the war.
e. bred to fight.

A. religious.

Billy Yank tended to be all of the following except
a. religious.
b. literate.
c. intellectual.
d. practical.
e. efficient.

B. revealed the influence of the Border States on his policies.

Lincoln's declaration that the North sought to preserve the Union with or without slavery
a. came as a disappointment to most Northerners and demoralized the Union.
b. revealed the influence of the Border States on his policies.
c. caused some seceded states to rejoin the Union.
d. contradicted the campaign promises of the Republican party.
e. cost him support in the Butternut region of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois.

A. he was not fighting to free the blacks.

Lincoln declared from the outset of the Civil War that
a. he was not fighting to free the blacks.
b. he wanted to see an end to slavery.
c. slaves in all the Confederate states were now legally emancipated.
d. he believed blacks and whites were equal.
e. None of these

C. fight the invading Union army to a draw.

To achieve its independence, the Confederacy had to
a. invade the Union.
b. win a decisive military victory on its own soil.
c. fight the invading Union army to a draw.
d. attract more talented military commanders.
e. capture Washington, D.C.

E. the ironclad Merrimack (renamed the Virginia).

The most serious Confederate threat to the Union blockade came from
a. British navy vessels on loan to the South.
b. swift blockade-running steamers.
c. the threat of mutiny from pro-southern sailors.
d. the Confederate cruiser Alabama.
e. the ironclad Merrimack (renamed the Virginia).

D. Confederate states still in rebellion against the United States.

When it was issued in 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation declared free only those slaves in
a. the Border States.
b. slave states that remained loyal to the Union.
c. United States territories.
d. Confederate states still in rebellion against the United States.
e. areas controlled by the Union army.

E. Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution.

Slavery was legally abolished in the United States by the
a. Union victory over the Confederates at Gettysburg.
b. surrender terms of Robert E. Lee to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox.
c. Emancipation Proclamation.
d. statutes of the individual states.
e. Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution.

B. the defeat caused Northerners to face up to the reality of a long, difficult war.

The Union's defeat in battle at the first Bull Run in 1861 was better than a victory because
a. Ulysses S. Grant took command of the army immediately after the setback.
b. the defeat caused Northerners to face up to the reality of a long, difficult war.
c. "Stonewall" Jackson was killed.
d. it caused Lincoln to declare a war against slavery.
e. it allowed European powers the chance to intervene on behalf of the South.

C. invade the Union via Maryland.

After defeating McClellan at the Second Battle of Bull Run, Robert E. Lee decided to
a. consolidate his forces to protect the Confederate capital.
b. send Jeb Stuart's cavalry to raid northern lines.
c. invade the Union via Maryland.
d. call for a ceasefire and peace negotiations.
e. shift some of his troops to the Tennessee and Kentucky fronts.

B. the Union's discovery of Robert E. Lee's battle plans.

One of the key developments enabling the Union to stop the Confederate thrust into the North at Antietam was
a. Europe's refusal to help the South before the battle.
b. the Union's discovery of Robert E. Lee's battle plans.
c. Lincoln's removal of General McClellan from his command.
d. the use of the new repeating rifle for the first time.
e. the death of Stonewall Jackson during the battle.

E. striking deep into the Confederacy via the Appalachian Mountain chain.

After the Peninsula Campaign, Union strategy included all of the following except
a. cutting the Confederacy in half by seizing the Mississippi River.
b. marching through Georgia and then the Carolinas.
c. blockading the Confederacy's coastline.
d. liberating the slaves to undermine the southern economy.
e. striking deep into the Confederacy via the Appalachian Mountain chain.

E. Union victory meant that the Southern cause was doomed.

The Battle of Gettysburg was significant because
a. Lee's army was effectively shattered.
b. it guaranteed Lincoln's re-election in 1864.
c. Philadelphia and New York were safe from attack.
d. Lee's military genius and right-hand man, Stonewall Jackson, was killed.
e. Union victory meant that the Southern cause was doomed.

E. it was the last major battle of the Civil War.

The Union victory at Vicksburg was of major importance for all of the following reasons except
a. it reopened the Mississippi River to Northern trade.
b. coupled with the victory at Gettysburg, foreign help for the Confederacy was irretrievably lost.
c. it helped to quell Northern peace agitation.
d. it cut off the supply of cattle and other goods from Texas and Louisiana.
e. it was the last major battle of the Civil War.

E. economy.

The North's greatest strength in the Civil War was its
a. ethnic unity.
b. military leadership.
c. navy.
d. high morale.
e. economy.

D. economy.

The greatest weakness of the South during the Civil War was its
a. military leadership.
b. navy.
c. slave population.
d. economy.
e. political system.

B. more talented military leaders.

As the Civil War began, the South seemed to have the advantage of
a. greater ability to wage offensive warfare.
b. more talented military leaders.
c. superior industrial capabilities.
d. superior transportation facilities.
e. a more united public opinion.

C. it was passed despite a healthy rate of volunteers.

24. All of the following are true statements about the federal conscription (draft) law except
a. it allowed draftees to hire substitutes
b. its provisions were unfair to the poor.
c. it was passed despite a healthy rate of volunteers.
d. men could pay $300 to purchase an exemption.
e. it inspired resentment and riots.

E. the Civil War.

The supreme test of American democracy in the nineteenth century was
a. the Revolution.
b. surviving the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.
c. helping Britain to pass the Reform Bill of 1867.
d. the War of 1812.
e. the Civil War.

Gettysburg Address

Given at the dedication of the Gettysburg cemetery.

Ford's Theater

John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln here.

Inflation

Was most dramatic in the south.

Major Robert Anderson

Union Major in charge of Fort Sumter.

P.T Beauregard

Confederate in charge of the attack on Fort Sumter.

Andrew Johnson

VP under Lincoln

Robert E. Lee

Confederate General

Dorothea Dix

Union head of hospital sanitation

John Wilkes Booth

Assassinated Lincoln

Thomas J. Jackson

Commanding General of the Army of Northern Virginia

Ulysses S. Grant

Final Commanding General of Union Army

George B. McClellan

Democratic candidate for President in 1864

William T. Sherman

Lead the victory for the Union through Georgia and South Carolina

George Pickett

Lead the famous charge up cemetery hill during Battle of Gettysburg

George B. Meade

Union General at Gettysburg

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