unit 1 mastering biology

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Which of the following is an example of the pattern of evolution? (Overview)

descent with modification
heredity
natural selection
the inheritance of acquired characteristics
the fossil record of the evolution of modern cetaceans

the fossil record of the evolution of modern cetaceans

What happened in the soapberry bug population in central Florida when the bugs began to feed on smaller goldenrain tree fruits?

The length of each bug's beak gradually became shorter over time.
Bugs developed short beaks, because they needed them to feed on the small fruits.
Bugs with shorter beaks had more access to food, allowing them to produce more offspring.

Bugs with shorter beaks had more access to food, allowing them to produce more offspring.

What is the meaning of Darwin's expression "descent with modification"?

Descent with modification refers to natural selection.
Descent with modification refers to evolutionary change over time.
Descent with modification refers to the partial resemblance of offspring to their parents.

Descent with modification refers to evolutionary change over time.

Soapberry bugs use needlelike "beaks" to feed on seeds within the fruits of various plants. Bugs feed most successfully when their beak length matches the size of the fruit on which they are feeding. For 25 years, populations of soapberry bugs in central Florida have been feeding on small goldenrain tree fruits that were introduced to the area, rather than on the larger native balloon vine fruits that serve as food for other soapberry bug populations. Beak lengths of soapberry bugs are variable, but the average beak length is shorter in soapberry bug populations that feed on goldenrain tree fruits than in populations that feed on balloon vine fruits, as shown in the graph. How does natural selection act on beak length in soapberry bug populations?

The action of natural selection on beak length in soapberry bug populations varies with the environment.
Natural selection increases beak length in soapberry bug populations.
Natural selection decreases beak length in soapberry bug populations.

The action of natural selection on beak length in soapberry bug populations varies with the environment.

Identify the pair of homologous structures.

Neither of the above; plants do not have homologous structures.
Maple leaf and oak leaf
Maple leaf and maple seed

Maple leaf and oak leaf

Charles Darwin _____.

was the first person to conclude that organisms evolve
proposed that unused parts of the body deteriorate
eagerly published his theory before it was well-developed
was the first to realize that fossils are remains of ancient organisms
proposed natural selection as the mechanism of evolution

proposed natural selection as the mechanism of evolution

An adaptation is _____.

an individual's attempt to conform to its environment
a trait that gives an organism a reproductive advantage in the current environment
the cause of natural selection
a trait that gives rise to a new species
all of the above

a trait that gives an organism a reproductive advantage in the current environment

From his observations of organisms in the Galapagos islands, Darwin reasoned that _____.

the shape of a bird's beak does not affect its ability to survive and reproduce
all island species should be similar to each other
organisms had adapted to new environments, giving rise to new species
the organisms in the Galapagos had been specially created to thrive in that environment
none of the above

organisms had adapted to new environments, giving rise to new species

Which of the following observations led to Darwin's major inferences?

Members of a population vary in their heritable traits.
Body parts that are not used deteriorate over time.
Organisms only go extinct when catastrophes occur.
Although organisms can produce huge numbers of offspring, many of these offspring do not survive.
The first and fourth answers are correct.

The first and fourth answers are correct. ( Members of a population vary in their heritable traits. Although organisms can produce huge numbers of offspring, many of these offspring do not survive.)

Which one of the following researchers developed a theory of evolution that was very similar to Charles Darwin's?

Cuvier
Lamarck
Wallace
Lyell
Hutton

Wallace

A group of small fish live in a lake with a uniformly light-brown sandy bottom. Most of the fish are light brown, but about 10% are mottled. This fish species is often prey for large birds that live on the shore. A construction company dumps a load of gravel in the bottom of the lake, giving it a mottled appearance. Which of these statements presents the most accurate prediction of what will happen to this fish population?

In two generations, all the fish will be mottled.
As the mottled fish are eaten, more will be produced to fill the gap.
The ratios will not change.
There is no way to predict the result.
The proportion of mottled fish will increase over time.

The proportion of mottled fish will increase over time.

Varieties of Staphylococcus aureus that are resistant to the drug methicillin _____.

developed in response to the use of methicillin
already existed in the population before methicillin was developed
always have an advantage in every environment
were strongly selected for as methicillin became widely used to treat bacterial infections
The second and fourth answers are correct.

The second and fourth answers are correct.
( already existed in the population before methicillin was developed, were strongly selected for as methicillin became widely used to treat bacterial infections)

A challenge to traditional (pre-1860) ideas about species came from embryology, when it was discovered that _____.

the embryological development of many plants and animals is almost identical
the more advanced the animal, the more slowly it develops
all animals develop similar embryonic gills
embryos of dissimilar organisms, such as sharks and humans, resemble each other
mutations have a far more dramatic effect on embryos than on adult organisms

embryos of dissimilar organisms, such as sharks and humans, resemble each other

The theory of evolution through natural selection is considered a scientific theory because _____.

it is broad enough in scope to explain many observations
it is supported by a massive body of evidence from many disciplines
it is general enough to provide many testable hypotheses
All of the above are correct.
None of the above is correct.

All of the above are correct.

What is true of microevolution?

It is evolution that involves only tiny changes to DNA, such as point mutations, producing only small (if any) changes to phenotype.
It is evolution that influences only a small subset of the populations that comprise a species.
It is evolution that is restricted to individual organisms.
It is evolution that results in the origin of small numbers of new species.
It is the kind of evolution that can change the relative abundance of a particular allele in a gene pool over the course of generations.

It is the kind of evolution that can change the relative abundance of a particular allele in a gene pool over the course of generations.

You read about soapberry bugs in Chapter 22. Select the correct statement describing relative fitness in these individuals.

A soapberry bug with high relative fitness has more mates than other bugs.
A soapberry bug with high relative fitness feeds more successfully on fruits than do other bugs.
A soapberry bug with high relative fitness has a relatively high number of offspring that survive to reproductive age.

A soapberry bug with high relative fitness has a relatively high number of offspring that survive to reproductive age.

The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has an allele that confers resistance to DDT and similar insecticides. Laboratory strains of D. melanogaster have been established from flies collected in the wild in the 1930s (before the widespread use of insecticides) and the 1960s (after 20 years of DDT use). Lab strains established in the 1930s have no alleles for DDT resistance. In lab strains established in the 1960s, the frequency of the DDT-resistance allele is 37%. Which statement is correct?

Alleles for DDT resistance arose by mutation during the period of DDT use because of selection for pesticide resistance.
Resistance to DDT evolved in some fruit flies in order to allow them to survive.
The evolutionary fitness associated with the heritable trait of DDT resistance changed once DDT use became widespread.

The evolutionary fitness associated with the heritable trait of DDT resistance changed once DDT use became widespread.

One out of 10,000 babies born in North America is affected by cystic fibrosis, a recessive condition. Assuming that the North American human population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for this trait, what percentage of the population is heterozygous for this trait? (Remember the equation for a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1.)

0.01%
0.0001%
2%

2%

Allele frequencies in a gene pool may shift randomly and by chance. What is this random shift called?

directional selection
gene flow
genetic drift

genetic drift

Which statement correctly describes the role of chance in evolution?

The ultimate source of new alleles is mutation, random changes in the nucleotide sequences of an organism's DNA.
An allele that increases evolutionary fitness cannot be lost from a population by chance events.
Evolutionary change proceeds by an accumulation of changes that occur by chance.

The ultimate source of new alleles is mutation, random changes in the nucleotide sequences of an organism's DNA.

Rabbit ear size tends to decrease as latitude increases. This is an example of _____.

genetic drift
a cline
polymorphism
heterozygote advantage
artificial selection

a cline

The original source of all genetic variation is _____.

sexual reproduction
recombination
natural selection
independent assortment
mutation

mutation

According to the Hardy-Weinberg theorem, the frequencies of alleles in a population will remain constant if _____ is the only process that affects the gene pool.

mutation
sexual reproduction
immigration
sexual selection
genetic drift

sexual reproduction

The evolutionary effects of genetic drift are greatest when _____.

the population size is large
the population size is small
sexual selection occurs
intraspecific competition is intense
intraspecific competition is weak

the population size is small

What situation most likely explains the occasional high frequency of certain inherited disorders among human populations established by a small population?

mutation
nucleotide variability
bottleneck effect
gene flow
founder effect

founder effect

In evolutionary terms, an organism's fitness is measured by its _____.

genetic variability
health
mutation rate
stability in the face of environmental change
contribution to the gene pool of the next generation

contribution to the gene pool of the next generation

Blue poppies native to China were grown at a plant-breeding center in California. The plants with the thickest leaves were most likely to survive and reproduce in the drier climate. After several generations, the percentage of thick-leaved plants had increased by 42%. This adaptation of the poppies to their new environment is due to _____.

stabilizing selection
disruptive selection
neutral variation
directional selection
genetic drift

directional selection

What is the only evolutionary mechanism that consistently leads to adaptive evolution?

natural selection
the bottleneck effect
gene flow
genetic drift
neutral variation

natural selection

How does diploidy help to preserve genetic variation?

It fosters the exchange of genes between different populations.
It helps individual organisms make a greater contribution to the gene pool of the next generation.
It allows the frequency of a recessive allele in a population to be predicted under certain conditions.
It allows recessive alleles that may not be favored in the current environment to be preserved in the gene pool by propagation in heterozygotes.
It restricts the gene pool by chance events such as floods or other catastrophic events.

It allows recessive alleles that may not be favored in the current environment to be preserved in the gene pool by propagation in heterozygotes.

Adaptive radiations on archipelagos (island chains) represent some of the best-understood speciation events. Why is an ancestral species more likely to give rise to multiple descendent species on an archipelago than on an equal-sized area of mainland?

Populations on nearby islands are more likely to be genetically isolated than populations that are equally close to one another on the mainland.
By chance, different species will colonize different islands in a chain.
Favorable mutations are more likely to arise on an archipelago as populations try to adapt to conditions on their specific island.

Populations on nearby islands are more likely to be genetically isolated than populations that are equally close to one another on the mainland.

The original habitat of the North American maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, was native hawthorn trees. About 200 years ago, some populations colonized newly introduced apple trees. The two populations are still classified as subspecies, but sympatric speciation is under way. What has contributed to incipient speciation in the maggot fly?

Maggot flies that feed and lay eggs on apples have gradually become adapted to this fruit.
Because apples mature more quickly than hawthorn fruit, the apple-feeding flies have been selected for more rapid development.
Apple maggot flies try to avoid mating with hawthorn maggot flies.

Because apples mature more quickly than hawthorn fruit, the apple-feeding flies have been selected for more rapid development.

How long does it take new species to form on Earth?

millions of years
The time required varies considerably.
Speciation no longer takes place on Earth.

The time required varies considerably.

In Europe, there is a long narrow hybrid zone, shown in red on the map, between the high-altitude habitat of the yellow-bellied toad and the lowland habitat of the fire-bellied toad. Despite this, there is little gene flow between the two species. Select the correct explanation.

Hybrids have poor survival and reproduction and thus produce few viable offspring with members of either parent species.
Yellow-bellied toads and fire-bellied toads are two different species.
Toads mate only with their own kind in order to avoid producing unhealthy hybrid young.

Hybrids have poor survival and reproduction and thus produce few viable offspring with members of either parent species.

Select the correct statement describing sympatric speciation.

Sympatric speciation has never been observed in nature.
Sympatric speciation is always initiated by geographic isolation of two populations.
Sympatric speciation can occur in a single generation.

Sympatric speciation can occur in a single generation.

Two animals are considered members of different species if they _____.

are members of different populations
live in different habitats
are geographically isolated
look different
cannot mate and produce viable, fertile offspring

cannot mate and produce viable, fertile offspring

According to the phylogenetic species concept, what is a species?

a clone of genetically identical organisms
a population that interbreeds and produces fertile offspring
a set of organisms with a unique genetic history
a population that is physically able to mate even if there are no offspring or the offspring are infertile
a population with a distinct fossil record

a set of organisms with a unique genetic history

What is the most important factor that holds a gene pool together and prevents speciation?

hybridization
prezygotic barriers
gene flow
sexual selection
behavioral isolation

gene flow

Which of these is an example of temporal isolation?

One species performs a specific courtship dance. the other species does not.
The average weight of the individuals in one species is 45 kg; in the other species the average is 290 kg.
One species is nocturnal, and the other species is not.
One is a type of primate, the other is a type of marsupial.
One species is found only in New York, the other only in London.

One species is nocturnal, and the other species is not.

Which of the following is the first step in allopatric speciation?

genetic drift
formation of a reproductive barrier
geographic isolation
polyploidy
hybridization

geographic isolation

Sympatric speciation is _____.

the process by which most animal species have evolved
the appearance of a new species in the same area as the parent population
initiated by the appearance of a geographic barrier
especially important in the evolution of island species
the emergence of many species from a single ancestor

the appearance of a new species in the same area as the parent population

Hybrid zones provide an opportunity to investigate _____.

the evolution of reproductive isolation
punctuated equilibrium
polyploidy
allopatric speciation
mutations

the evolution of reproductive isolation

A certain species of salamander was split into two populations by a wide, dry valley, and the populations began to diverge from each other. After a period of time, some members of the two populations began to interbreed in a hybrid zone at the southern end of the valley. Only weak reproductive barriers existed by this time, so the two populations could freely interbreed and re-establish gene flow. This outcome in a hybrid zone is known as _____.

reinforcement
stability
speciation
punctuated equilibrium
fusion

fusion

According to the _____ model, evolution occurs in spurts; species evolve relatively rapidly then remain unchanged for long periods.

geographic isolation
nondisjunction
adaptive radiation
gradualist
punctuated equilibrium

punctuated equilibrium

Which of the following has been shown to cause speciation most rapidly?

autopolyploidy
sexual selection
hybridization
differential resource exploitation
punctuated equilibrium

autopolyploidy

In 1959, doctors began using the powerful antibiotic methicillin to treat infections of Staphylococcus aureus, but within two years, methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus (MRSA) appeared. How did the resistant strains of S. aureus emerge?

Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that were able to synthesize cell walls using a protein that was not affected by methicillin survived the methicillin treatments and reproduced at higher rates than did other individuals. Over time, these resistant individuals became increasingly common.
In response to treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections with methicillin, bacterial populations gradually began to synthesize cell walls using a protein that was not affected by methicillin.
In response to treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections with methicillin, some bacteria began to synthesize cell walls using a protein that was not affected by methicillin. These bacteria survived the methicillin treatments and reproduced at higher rates than did other individuals. Over time, these resistant individuals became increasingly common.

Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that were able to synthesize cell walls using a protein that was not affected by methicillin survived the methicillin treatments and reproduced at higher rates than did other individuals. Over time, these resistant individuals became increasingly common.

Darwin's thinking while on the Beagle was greatly influenced by his reading of a book written by _____.

Chaucer
Shakespeare
Bishop Ussher
Wallace
Lyell

Lyell

According to this climatograph, London experiences more precipitation during _____ than during any other month.

July
January
June
February
October

October

Which of these is a consequence of uniformitarianism?

Earth is round, not flat.
Populations evolve.
Earth is very old.
Populations reproduce faster than their food supply.
A Creator made Earth.

Earth is very old.

The Argentinean pampas are a type of _____.

temperate deciduous forest
desert
grassland
chaparral
tropical forest

grassland

At the fossil site at Punta Alta, Darwin found evidence _____.

that Brazilian flatworms were a type of slug
of extinction
of divine creation
that the pampas could support large mammals
that extinction does not happen

of extinction

Patagonia is a _____.

tropical forest
savanna
grassland
chaparral
desert

desert

His experiences with Fuegians and slavery convinced Darwin that differences among all peoples are primarily _____ differences.

cultural
cultural and genetic
genetic
due to height
genetic and height-related

cultural

Species in hot climates tend to _____ compared to species in cold climates.

have less fear of humans
have smaller surface-to-volume ratios
experience less interspecific competition
have larger surface-to-volume ratios
be less colorful

have larger surface-to-volume ratios

In the Andes, at elevations of 12,000 feet, Darwin collected fossilized marine shells. The existence of marine shells at this altitude provided evidence that _____.

the deposit had been gradually uplifted to its present location
geologic processes occur at a rapid rate
marine organisms can survive at great elevation
someone carried them from the oceans and left them on the mountains
Earth's surface does not change

the deposit had been gradually uplifted to its present location

The Galápagos Islands are located _____.

in the Arctic
off the coast of California
off the coast of Brazil
Off the coast of Ecuador
in the Antarctic

Off the coast of Ecuador

Why were the Galápagos Islands so important to Darwin's formulation of natural selection?

They are where Darwin did most of his writing.
The species found on the Galápagos Islands are also found in Australia.
The Galápagos Islands are the only place in the world where finches are found.
They provided evidence in support of uniformitarianism.
Each island in the Galápagos possessed unique species.

Each island in the Galápagos possessed unique species.

The Galápagos Islands are cooled by the _____.

Kuroshio Current
Equatorial Countercurrent
Monsoon Drift
Gulf Stream
Humboldt Current

Humboldt Current

How many finch species did Darwin send to the British Museum?

17
30
13
15
21

13

Which of the following statements about natural selection is true?

Natural selection occurs in opposition to evolution.
Natural selection favors individuals that reproduce more than others.
Natural selection is a process whereby genes are selected randomly for preservation in the next generation.
Natural selection can be used by farmers to generate organisms with desirable traits.

Natural selection favors individuals that reproduce more than others.

Which term describes a trait that increases an individual's ability to survive in a particular environment?

Adaptation
Heritability
Fitness
Evolution

Adaptation

Which term describes the ability of a trait to be passed on to offspring?

Evolution
Adaptation
Heritability
Fitness

Heritability

Which of the following organisms could be produced by artificial selection?

A rabbit that is housebroken.
A chimpanzee that communicates through sign language.
A cow that produces a large quantity of milk.
A dog that serves as the "eyes" for a blind individual.

A cow that produces a large quantity of milk.

Which pair of chickens should a farmer breed to produce larger chickens?

Small hen, small rooster
Large hen, small rooster
Large hen, large rooster
Small hen, large rooster

Large hen, large rooster

A farmer wishes to develop a strain of high-yield corn that is also resistant to drought. He has the following individuals from the current year's crop:

Individual A—Yield: 179 bushels/acre; drought resistance: high
Individual B—Yield: 220 bushels/acre; drought resistance: low
Individual C—Yield: 185 bushels/acre; drought resistance: medium
Individual D—Yield: 140 bushels/acre; drought resistance: high
Individual E—Yield: 200 bushels/acre; drought resistance: medium

Which of the following crosses would produce the highest corn yield with the highest resistance to drought?

A and E
B and B
C and E
A and B

A and E

A challenge to traditional (pre-1860) ideas about species came from embryology, when it was discovered that _____.

mutations have a far more dramatic effect on embryos than on adult organisms
all animals develop similar embryonic gills
the embryological development of many plants and animals is almost identical
the more advanced the animal, the more slowly it develops
embryos of dissimilar organisms, such as sharks and humans, resemble each other

embryos of dissimilar organisms, such as sharks and humans, resemble each other

The wing of a bat is homologous to the _____ of a whale.

baleen
tail
flipper
rib cage
blowhole

flipper

Which of these lists contains the four postulates of natural selection?

Uniform population, heritable traits, selection, differential survival or reproduction
Variation in population, heritable variation, selection, differential survival or reproduction
Variation in population, heritable variation, selection, unlimited survival and reproduction
Variation in population, environmental variation, selection, differential survival or reproduction

Variation in population, heritable variation, selection, differential survival or reproduction

Which of the following statements is an accurate combination of postulates 1 and 2 of natural selection?

Heritable variation exists for traits among individuals in a population.
Drug resistance exists among all individuals in a population.
Environmental variation exists for traits among individuals in a population.
Heritable variation does not exist among individuals in a population.

Heritable variation exists for traits among individuals in a population.

Which of the following statements is an accurate combination of postulates 3 and 4 of natural selection?

Individuals experience uniform success in their ability to survive or reproduce.
Individuals experience no success in their ability to survive or reproduce.
Individuals experience unlimited success in their ability to survive or reproduce.
Individuals experience differential success in their ability to survive or reproduce.

Individuals experience differential success in their ability to survive or reproduce

Does the ability of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell to infect a new host depend on its drug-resistant phenotype?

Yes, drug-susceptible cells can infect a new host more easily than drug-resistant cells.
Yes, drug-resistant cells can infect a new host more easily than drug-susceptible cells.
No, drug-susceptible cells and drug-resistant cells are equally likely to infect a new host.

No, drug-susceptible cells and drug-resistant cells are equally likely to infect a new host.

Which of the following statements describes the evolution by natural selection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria in their new environment?

The drug-susceptiblity trait is an adaptation to the environment in which human hosts are medicated with the antibiotic rifampin.
The drug-resistance trait is an adaptation to the environment in which human hosts travel worldwide and are exposed to new strains of bacteria.
The drug-susceptiblity trait is an adaptation to the environment of antibacterial soaps.
The drug-resistance trait is an adaptation to the environment in which human hosts are medicated with the antibiotic rifampin.

The drug-resistance trait is an adaptation to the environment in which human hosts are medicated with the antibiotic rifampin.

In the United States today, about half of the corn crop is genetically engineered with a protein that is toxic to corn borers, an insect pest of corn. Which of the following conditions would be necessary for evolution of resistance to the toxic protein to occur in the corn borer?

The corn borer must lack variation in resistance to the toxic protein.
The corn borer must have or generate (by mutation) heritable variation in resistance to the toxic protein. The resistant corn borers must survive better or reproduce more than nonresistant corn borers.
The corn borers must experience no success in their ability to survive or reproduce.
The corn borers must experience unlimited success in their ability to survive or reproduce.

The corn borer must have or generate (by mutation) heritable variation in resistance to the toxic protein. The resistant corn borers must survive better or reproduce more than nonresistant corn borers.

True or false? It would be difficult to assess whether the drug-susceptible or drug-resistant phenotype in a population of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was more fit in an environment without antibiotics.

True
False

True

What is unique about deer mice?

They are the most populous mouse found in North America.
They are the only mice that hibernate.
They are the only mice that reproduce three times per year.
They are the only mice found in one distinct color.

They are the most populous mouse found in North America.

For this project, which of the following are scientists studying?

lab and wild mice
lab mice
genetically-engineered mice
wild mice

wild mice

You wish to research how genetics determine color of deer mice. How many genes should you focus on?

1
3
5
7

1

The three-spine stickleback typically lacks armor in fresh water. Why?

Due to delayed development.
To allow for faster growth.
It doesn't need the protection.
The armor hinders its hunting.

To allow for faster growth.

Which of the following is true?

Genotype determines phenotype.
Genotype and phenotype are the same thing.
Phenotype determines genotype.
Genotype and phenotype are not related.

Genotype determines phenotype.

Within six months of effectively using methicillin to treat S. aureus infections in a community, all new infections were caused by MRSA. How can this result best be explained?

The drug caused the S. aureus DNA to change.
In response to the drug, S. aureus began making drug-resistant versions of the protein targeted by the drug.
A patient must have become infected with MRSA from another community.
S. aureus can resist vaccines.
Some drug-resistant bacteria were present at the start of treatment, and natural selection increased their frequency.

Some drug-resistant bacteria were present at the start of treatment, and natural selection increased their frequency.

The upper forelimbs of humans and bats have fairly similar skeletal structures, whereas the corresponding bones in whales have very different shapes and proportions. However, genetic data suggest that all three kinds of organisms diverged from a common ancestor at about the same time. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for these data?

Humans and bats evolved by natural selection, and whales evolved by Lamarckian mechanisms.
Forelimb evolution was adaptive in people and bats, but not in whales.
Natural selection in an aquatic environment resulted in significant changes to whale forelimb anatomy.
Genes mutate faster in whales than in humans or bats.
Whales are not properly classified as mammals.

Natural selection in an aquatic environment resulted in significant changes to whale forelimb anatomy.

DNA sequences in many human genes are very similar to the sequences of corresponding genes in chimpanzees. The most likely explanation for this result is that

convergent evolution led to the DNA similarities.
humans evolved from chimpanzees.
chimpanzees evolved from humans.
humans and chimpanzees are not closely related.
humans and chimpanzees share a relatively recent common ancestor.

humans and chimpanzees share a relatively recent common ancestor.

Which of the following is not an observation or inference on which natural selection is based?

There is heritable variation among individuals.
Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring.
Individuals whose characteristics are best suited to the environment generally leave more offspring than those whose characteristics are less well suited.
Species produce more offspring than the environment can support.
Only a fraction of an individual's offspring may survive.

Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring.

Which of the following observations helped Darwin shape his concept of descent with modification?

South American temperate plants are more similar to the tropical plants of South America than to the temperate plants of Europe.
Species diversity declines farther from the equator.
Fewer species live on islands than on the nearest continents.
Earthquakes reshape life by causing mass extinctions.
Birds can be found on islands located farther from the mainland than the birds' maximum nonstop flight distance.

South American temperate plants are more similar to the tropical plants of South America than to the temperate plants of Europe.

Which of the following is an example of the pattern of evolution? (Overview)

the inheritance of acquired characteristics
descent with modification
natural selection
the fossil record of the evolution of modern cetaceans
heredity

the fossil record of the evolution of modern cetaceans

What is the meaning of Darwin's expression "descent with modification"?

Descent with modification refers to the partial resemblance of offspring to their parents.
Descent with modification refers to evolutionary change over time.
Descent with modification refers to natural selection.

Descent with modification refers to evolutionary change over time.

Where are the Solomon Islands located?

in the Mediterranean Sea
in the South Pacific
off the coast of California
off the southern tip of Florida

in the South Pacific

Scientists studying evolution on the Solomon Islands described which animal as the 'poster child' for the biological species concept?

frog
white-eye bird
sea turtle
snake

white-eye bird

Based on the video, what can you infer about speciation--the process by which one species splits into two or more species?

New species typically form as a consequence of new parasites or predators in the environment.
It is rare for new species to form on islands.
Different species are typically very different in appearance, even if they are closely related.
Physical separation of populations is often part of the speciation process.

Physical separation of populations is often part of the speciation process.

Why did the biologists consider a frog that they found to be a new species?

Its coloration was different from other known frogs.
It jumped higher than other known frogs.
It was larger than any known frog.
Its call was unique.

Its call was unique.

When Darwin wrote On the Origin of Species, he knew very little about the subject of _____, an essential component of evolutionary theory today.

botany
marine biology
zoology
genetics

genetics

Where are the Galapagos Islands located?

600 miles west of Ecuador, near the equator
in the Mediterranean Sea, as part of the Greek Islands
northeast of Australia along the Great Barrier Reef
near the tip of South Africa

600 miles west of Ecuador, near the equator

Which of the following sets of animals are likely to be found on the Galapagos Islands?

ostriches, cougars, porcupines
frogs, lungfish, mountain goats
beaver, snakes, armadillos
tortoises, finches, blue-footed boobies

tortoises, finches, blue-footed boobies

Which species is threatening the natural wildlife on the Galapagos Islands?

Asian carp
mountain lions
zebra mussels
humans

humans

he Galapagos Islands were the first place on Earth to _____.

be declared a world heritage site
be invaded by human-introduced species
suffer the complete extinction of all native species
be declared off-limits to all humans

be declared a world heritage site

Tourism on the Galapagos Islands is being restricted by requiring tourists to _____.

view the islands only from the water
visit each island in groups of only ten individuals at a time
be escorted by trained guides at all times
stay at least 100 feet away from all animals on the islands

be escorted by trained guides at all times

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