Which of the following statements concerning viruses is true?
The "host range" for a virus is determined by the presence or absence of particular components on the surface of a host cell that are required for the virus to attach.
Which statement concerning viral structure is true?
Spikes are found on some viruses. They are very consistent in structure and can be used for identification.
How does specialized transduction differ from regular lysogeny?
The prophage in specialized transduction carries with it pieces of the host chromosomal DNA.
What happens to the packaged DNA of a specialized transduced phage when it infects a new recipient cell?
The host DNA integrates, with the prophage, into the new recipient chromosome.
How can specialized transduction contribute to the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in a bacterial population?
The prophage takes an antibiotic resistance gene with it and is packaged with the newly synthesized viral DNA.
Which of the following is true concerning a lysogenic viral replication cycle?
During lysogeny, the viral genome integrates into the host DNA, becoming a physical part of the chromosome.
How do naked viruses differ from enveloped viruses in their attachment/penetration phase?
Their nucleic acids are injected into the cell.
Which of the following viruses is transcribed from RNA to DNA to RNA during the replication cycle?
Which type of virus would produce viral glycoproteins to be expressed on the host cell membrane?
We sometimes are able to generate antibodies (immune system proteins) that bind to and cover up some of the proteins on the outermost portion of a virus while it is in the bloodstream. This renders the virus unable to reproduce. Which step of viral replication are antibodies directly preventing?
Enveloped viruses have a layer of lipids surrounding their capsid. This envelope is made mostly of host cell membrane. In which step does the virus acquire this envelope?
Which of the following statements regarding latent viral infections is true?
Latent infections can persist for years in an individual without causing any symptoms.
Which of the following is true regarding cultivation and isolation of animal viruses?
Diploid cell culture lines, developed from human embryos, are widely used for culturing viruses that require a human host.
The normal function of the PrP protein in mammals is believed to be:
assisting in normal synaptic development and function.
How do normal prion proteins (PrP) differ from the infectious prion proteins?
Normal PrP have alpha-helices; infectious PrP have beta-pleated sheets.
How does the number of infectious prions increase?
Prions transform normal proteins into the misfolded beta-pleated sheet configuration; therefore, prions multiply by conversion.
Why are the beta-pleated multimers of PrP potentially pathogenic?
The multimers are more stable and resistant to protease.
Which of the following statements concerning prion diseases is true?
Normal host cellular prion proteins (PrPC) are converted into scrapie proteins (PrPSc).
Which of the following statements provides the most significant support for the idea that viruses are nonliving chemicals?
They cannot reproduce themselves outside a host.
Which of the following statements about viral spikes is FALSE?
They are found only on nonenveloped viruses.
Viruses that utilize reverse transcriptase belong to the virus families
Hepadnaviridae and Retroviridae.
Continuous cell lines differ from primary cell lines in that
continuous cell lines can be maintained through an indefinite number of generations.
Which of the following events might trigger induction of a temperate bacteriophage?
Exposure to UV light
How is the lytic cycle different from the lysogenic cycle with respect to the infected host cell?
The host cell dies during the lytic stage.
What is the fate of the prophage during the lysogenic stage?
It is copied every time the host DNA replicates.
What would be the fate of a lytic bacteriophage if the host cell died prior to the assembly stage?
The virus would not be able to infect new hosts.
Bacteriophages and animal viruses do NOT differ significantly in which one of the following steps?
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
The prophage makes the host cell immune to infection by other phages.
Which of the following would be the first step in biosynthesis of a virus with a - (minus) strand of RNA?
synthesis of double-stranded RNA from an RNA template
A viruss ability to infect an animal cell depends primarily upon the
presence of receptor sites on the cell membrane.
Assume you have isolated an unknown virus. This virus has a single, positive sense strand of RNA, and possesses an envelope. To which group does it most likely belong?
Bacteriophage replication differs from animal virus replication because only bacteriophage replication involves
injection of naked nucleic acid into the host cell.
Generally, in an infection caused by a DNA-containing virus, the host animal cell supplies all of the following EXCEPT
Which of the following places these items in the correct order for DNA-virus replication?
2. DNA synthesis
2; 3; 4; 1
The following steps occur during multiplication of herpesviruses. Which is the third step?
The following steps occur during multiplication of retroviruses. Which is the fourth step?
synthesis of double-stranded DNA
Which one of the following steps does NOT occur during multiplication of a picornavirus?
synthesis of DNA
The most conclusive evidence that viruses cause cancers is provided by
cancer following injection of cell-free filtrates.
A lytic virus has infected a patient. Which of the following would best describe what is happening inside the patient?
The virus is causing the death of the infected cells in the patient.
Some viruses, such as human herpesvirus 1, infect a cell without causing symptoms. These are called
Assume a patient had chickenpox (human herpesvirus 3) as a child. Which line on the graph in the figure would show the number of viruses present in this person as a 60-year-old with shingles (human herpesvirus 3)?
Assume a patient has influenza. During which time on the graph in the figure would the patient show the symptoms of the illness?
Which of the following conditions in humans is linked to bovine spongiform encephalopathy?
Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Where does the name "scrapie" come from?
The prion disorder causes infected sheep to scrape against objects until their skin is raw.