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Correct answers to the first 3 AP US history tests.

Mercantilism was

an economic theory carefully elaborated by Adam Smith in "The wealth of Nations"
a government policy aimed at achieving national economic self-sufficiency
and a colonial American policy of trading primarily with England in order to strengthen political and economic ties

The Great Awakening in the 18th century was an

Intellectual Renaissance

A major theme of the American Enlightenment is a belief in

Natural Laws

In governing their American Empire after 1763, the new problem which faced the British was

a large national debt and greatly increased expenses in administering a far larger and more complex empire

In the Treaty of Paris ending the French and Indian War

the french lost their North American Empire to the British

Deists

believed in a God who had created a perfect universe and then allowed it to operate according to natural laws

Pontiac's Rebellion (uprising) occurred because

the native Americans feared that Anglo-American settlers would flock to areas west of the Appalachian Mountains

According to the Proclamation of 1763

settlers were prohibited from crossing the Appalachians

Prior to 1763 England ad NOT attempted to

raise direct revenue in the colonies

The "writs of assistance"

allowed the British to ransack a colonial merchant's house in search of illegal goods

A new relationship between Britain and its American colonies was initiated in 1763 ____ assumed charge of colonial policy.

George Grenville

The Stamp Act of 1765 called for taxation on

Newspapers and legal documents

The significance of the Stamp Act Congress was that

the colonies spoke with one voice

American complaints about lack of representation made little sense to the British, who asserted that

Each member of parliament represented the whole empire rather than individuals or regions.

In the face of colonial reaction to the Stamp Act, the British government

revoked the act but reaffirmed parliamentary power to legislate for the colonies in all cases.

Who wrote twelve "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" arguing that Parliament could regulate trade but could not tax for the purpose of raising revenue?

John Dickinson

The Townshend Act of 1767 imposed duties on:

Paper, pain, glass, and tea imported into the colonies.

In the Boston Massacre

Bostonians hurled ice, rocks, and lumber at british soldiers, who then fired without orders and killed five civilians.

The major purpose of the Tea Act of May 1773 was to:

bail out the financially strapped British East India Company

The boston Tea Party immediately led to which of the following sequence of events:

The passage of the intolerable acts and the calling of the First Continental Congress

Which of the following statements is NOT true about the Coercive Acts?

They were directed against all of the colonies.

The local committees of correspondence organized by Samuel Adams

kept opposition to the British alive, through exchange of propaganda.

In response to the Coercive Acts, the First Continental Congress

approved non-importation, non-consumption, and non-exportation agreements against Great Britain.

Match each individual with the correct description

Samuel Adams- a pamphleteer who first organized committees to exchange ideas and information on resisting British policies
John Adams- a massachusetts politician who opposed the moderates' solution to the imperial crisis at the First Continental Congress
Crispus Attucks- a casualty of the Boston Massacre

When the Second Continental Congress met in May of 1775

It resolved to keep fighting in the hope that the british would redress the colonists' grievances.

Thomas Paine's "Common Sense"

blamed George III for the colonies problems and urged Americans to declare their Independece

The Declaration of Independence was written to inform

France that the American colonies were serious about the split with England.

Thomas Jefferson, when writing the Declaration of Independence, borrowed heavily from the ideas of

John Locke

In the declaration of Independence, whom did the Americans indict for "repeated injuries and usurpations"?

Parliament, because of the oppressive legislation that it has passed over ten years.

Which of the following is in correct chronological order?

Pontiac's rebellion, Proclamation of 1763, Boston Massacre, Boston Tea Party

Arrange the following Events in chronological order: (A) fighting at lexington and concord (B) convening of the Second Continental Congress (C) Publication of "Common Sense" (D) adoption of the Declaration of Independence

A, B, C, D

The revolutionary War began with the

Battles of lexington and Concord

The population at the beginning of the Revolutionary War was divided almost equally between

Tories, Patriots, and those uncommitted.

The American Army in the early years of the War for Independence can be characterized as

ill-fed, ill-clothed, and ill-trained

The outcome of the Battle of Saratoga was important because

it convinced the French government to formally recognize the United States and go to war against Britain

Which of the following battles forced the British government to commence peace negotiations with the Americans?

Yorktown

Which of the following nations was an ally of the BRITISH during the American War for Independence?

(None of the above-France, Holland, or Spain)

American victory in the Revolutionary War led to

the spread of the idea of liberty at home and abroad

Match each of the british generals below with the battle in which he was involved:

William How- Long Island
John Burgoyne- Saratoga
Charles Cornwallis- Yorktown

Political theory in the colonial period said that the ideal government was a "mixed govnerment" that contained elements of democracy, aristocracy, and monarchy. The glue that held the mixture together was "diference," which weas the belief in

yielding to the leadership of the superior upper class

In the 1790s Virginia dn Maryland exoported 130,000,000 pounds per year. In 1775, 165,000 barrels of another product passed through Charleston and Savannah. New England ecported 2,700,000 gallons of its chief product in 1775. These three exports are, respectively

tobacco, rice, and rum

France offered the United States aid during the War for Independence because

as a traditional enemy of England they wanted to see her humbled.

The first inhabitants of the Americas reached the New World by

migrating from Asia across the then existing Alaska-Siberia land bridge

All of these were characteristics of Native American cultures before contact with the Old World EXCEPT

the belief that property ownership gave the owner perpetual and exclusive control over the land

Which of the following most accurately describes the sequence of historical events/periods?

Crusades, Renaissance, Portuguese Exploration, Reformation

Which of the following best describes the impact European colonization had on the Western Hemisphere's native population?

Native populations were often killed off or driven away by the Europeans.

Which of the following sought to exploit the lucrative fur trade in North America?

The french

The Columbian Exchange refers to

a redistribution of plants, animals, and peoples around the globe.

The earliest English colony was in

Virginia (1607)

The religious dissenters who established Plymouth colony were the

Pilgrims-Separists

A serious problem in the early years of Jamestown was the

lack of a skilled, agricultural labor force

The eventual successes of the Virginia settlement depended largely upon the

introduction of the cultivation of tobacco

The majority of people came into America in the colonial period for which of the following reasons?

To seek economic gain

John Winthrop is associated with which colony?

MA Bay colony

Religion in the Chesapeake region in the 17th century

was not as important a force as in New England

The economies of South Carolina and Georgia relied primarily on the cultivation of

rice

What was the purpose of the Mayflower Compact?

to establish a civil government, because the settlers had no legal right to be where they were.

Most immigrants to the Chesapeake colonies in the 17th century came as

indentured slaves

What was described as "a city upon a hill"?

MA Bay Colony

She was banished from MA for claiming that God spoke directly to her in her soul

Anne Hutchinson

Over the course of the 17th century, most indentured servants

faced increasingly harsh circumstances

The Church of England or Anglican Church that broke from Catholicism was established under

Henry VIII

Arrange the following events in chronological order:
(A) Great Puritan migration
(B) Founding of Plymouth colony
(C) Protestant Reformation
(D) Founding of Rhode Island

C, B, A, D

The colony of the New Netherlands was founded by

The Dutch West India Company

The colony of PEnnsylvania was founded as a refuge for

Quakers

Bacon's Rebellion was supported mainly by

young men frustrated by their inability to acquire land.

As a result of Bacon's Rebellion

planters began to look for less troublesome laborers.

Many religious groups fled to colonies because of persecution. Which of the following is an EXCEPTION?

Anglicans

The Halfway Covenant was adopted because

too few second and third-generation Puritans were willing to testify publicly about their conversion experiences.

The Salem witchcraft trials were

the result of unsettled social and religious conditions in rapidly evolving MA

The southern transition to black slave labor in the last quarter of the 17th century can be explained partly by

the desire of white planters for a more permanent and pliable labor force

The Quakers believed in

The inner light, the peaceful settlement of issues, the equality of each person (all of the above)

In the New England colonies, the prevailing type of agriculture was

Subsistence

The Middle Colonies were

heterogeneous religiously and ethnically

All of the following colonies except one were established by religious groups persecuted in England. Which is the exception?

Virginia

Few women gained prominence in Colonial America except

Anne Hutchinson and Anne Bradstreet.

When the first Africans arrived in Jamestown in 1619, they were

not designated slaves.

In contrast to Europe in the 17th century, the colonies, were characterized by

a scarcity of labor

The "headrights system" adopted in the Virginia colony

gave 50 acres of land to anyone who would transport someone (like and indentured servant) to the colony.

All of the following statements about indentured servitude in colonial America are true EXCEPT:

Indentured servants could not be sold as property.

The first proprietary colony was

Maryland

Which of the following colonies was founded as a haven for Catholics?

Maryland

In the first half of the seventeenth century, the Great Migration refers to the

settlement of the Puritans in the MA Bay colony

Roger Williams is best known in American History as

an early champion of religious freedom

In founding the colony of Georgia, James Oglethorpe's primary purpose was to?

provide a refuge for English debtors.

When they were married most colonial women lost their

property rights.

The Virginia House of Burgesses and the New England town meetings were similar in that they:

represented colonial participation in government.

Indentured servants were important to the development of the 17th century Chesapeake because they?

provided a relatively cheap and abundant source of labor for Chesapeake tobacco planters.

Anne Hutchinson's teaching threatened to underminethe spiritual authority of the established clergy because she?

Claimed believers could communicate directly with God

The Maryland Toleration Act of 1649 provided for?

The tolerance of most Christian churches.

Which of the following characterized life in the Chesapeake region in the early 17th century?

a population density which required residents to live in close proximity to neighbors.

Puritans believed that the individual's salvation depended upon

individual good works

Following the War for Independence, most Americans wanted the power of government to be held by

the state governments.

List the following events in the chronological order they occurred:
(A) The Philadelphia Constitution Convention
(B) The Articles of Confederation's ratification
(C) "The federalists Paper"
(D) the Whiskey Rebellion

B, A, C, D

Which of the following was a major success of the Articles of Confederation

They devised land policies that would allow for the systematic incorporation of new states

The weaknesses of the Articles of the Confederation included the national governments' inability to

raise an army, regulate interstate and foreign trade, raise taxes. (All of the above)

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 stated that the

territories could petition to become states when they had a population of at least 60,000

When the states wrote their state constitutions, they gave more power to the

Legislature

Daniel Shays led

debtor farmers to refuse to pay creditors and to close the local courts

What would an urban artisan, a merchant, a land speculator, and a western settler have in common in 1787?

They all were dissatisfied with the Confederation and wanted stronger national government that could protect their interests.

The proposal to create a bicameral nation legislature, with representation based proportionally on each states' population, was known as the

Virginia Plan

Which important controversy was resolved by the Great (or Connecticut) Compromise?

representation in Congress

The fact that the United States Constitution provided for Federalism (Shared powers between the national and states) and a system of check and balances suggest that?

its writers feared a concentration of political power

The 3/5 compromise of the Constitution Convention of 1787 provided that?

for purposes of representation and taxation, the votes of 3 free men were equal to those of 5 slaves

One of the Anti-federalists' key objections to the proposed Federal Constitution was the

absence of a bill of rights

The "Federalist Papers" were written in support of the

Federal constitution

Who might have agreed with the statement that "liberty is safe only if power is diffused among virtuous, independent citizens"?

Thomas Jefferson

The Political figure who took the lead in establishing the domestic program in Washington's administration was

Alexander Hamilton

Which of the following was NOT one of the first four cabinet departments in the Washington administration?

Agriculture

Alexander Hamilton's financial plan included all of the following except

an income tax

In the Report on Manufacturers

Hamilton supported policies that would protect American Industry from foreign competition

Hamilton's domestic program reflected his belief that

the nation had to be industrially self-sufficient, and that the national government had to maintain authority over the states

The essential disagreement between Hamilton and Jefferson over the proposed Bank of the United States was

whether the Constitution granted the federal government the power to establish such a bank.

The first incident in which the federal government demonstrated effectiveness of its power was

the Whiskey rebellion

The French Revolution and the ensuing war between France and Great Britain tended to

widen the split between American political factions

The United States government responded to France's declaration of war on Britain in 1793 by

proclaiming neutrality

The conduct of Citizen Genet in 1793 was unacceptable to the American government because he was

licensing American vessels as privateers against British shipping

Jay's Treaty (1794) provided for?

evacuation of English troops from their posts along the Great Lakes

In 1795, the United States gained unrestricted access to the Mississippi River and New Orleans by

negotiating a treat with Spain

The XYZ Affair

arose out of the French government's demand fora bribe as the price for negotiations

The Alien and Sedition Acts dealt with all of the following issues EXCEPT

immigration restrictions

Purposes of Alexander Hamilton's tax, tariff, and debt manipulation schemes during the presidency of George Washington included?

binding the interests of the wealthy class to the new federal government

The Purpose of adding the Bill of Rights to the United States federal Constitution was to

protect the people from abuse by the Federal Government

According to the original United States Constitution, before the addition of amendments, which Federal official was to be directly elected by the voters?

a member of the House of Representatives

The main purpose of the Alien and Sedition Acts was to:

silence and punish critics of the ruling federalists

Federalist strength in the Election of 1800 was greatest in

New England

The most "revolutionary" development in the critical election of 1800 was

the peaceful transition of power from one political party to its opponent

One Federalist policy that Jefferson quickly overturned was

the excise tax

In the Republican vision of America, education was essential because:

an ignorant electorate could not be trusted to preserve democracy

In Marbury vs. Madison, Chief Justice John Marshall argued successfully that it is only the Supreme Court that had the powers to

declare federal law unconstitutional

Which of the following does NOT describe the Louisiana Purchase of 1803

French power expanded in the WEstern Hemisphere

The expression "Peaceable coercion" refers to Jefferson's attempt to protect American neutral rights by means of

economic pressure

The causes of the War of 1812 included all of the following EXCEPT

strong sectional rivalries that could only be overcome by an external army

"No seaman, seafaring, or other person shall, upon the high seas be demanded or take out of any ship or vessel belonging to the citizens of one of the parties, by the public or private armed ships belonging to, or in the service of, the other party..." This was an American attempt to deal with the problem of

Impressments

The Orders in Councils

required all neutral ships sailing to France to be searched in England or be subject to seizure

Beside creating a pan-Indian military alliance against European American expansion, Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa (the prophet) urged Native Americans to

resist European American ways and revive their traditional culture

The Embargo Act of 1807 hurt which of the following the MOST

New England

The "War Hawks"

supported going to war against Britain in the early nineteenth century

The Hartford Convention

was organized by the federalist opposition to the war with Britain

In diplomatic and economic terms, the War of 1812

could be considered the Second War for Independence

Despite the Revolution's emphasis on human rights and equality, the Founding Fathers failed to abolish slavery because

of their fear that a fight over slavery would destroy fragile national unity.

The ideal of "republican motherhood" that emerged from the American Revolution held that

women had a special responsibility to cultivate the "civic virtues" of republicanism in their children

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