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Final Exam Study Guide Northwest MS Community College Instrucor: Phyllis Johnson

A baby born between the seventh and eighth month of pregnancy

usually needs oxygen assistance to breathe

A cell's normal genetic programming has been disrupted in Lois's body, causing uncontrolled growth and crowding out of normal cells. Lois has

cancer

A concrete operational child can ____mentally, an ability called____.

seriate; transitive inference

A diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is made

through exclusion, after ruling out other causes of dementia

A gamete

contains 23 chromosomes

A genotype is a

complex blend of genetic information that determines the species and influences unique characteristics

A key concept in Rothbart's model of infant temperament is

effort control

A person who lists being a valued elder as a gratification of grandparenthood values

being perceived as a wise, helpful person

A strong____orientation, especially, predicts gains in life satisfaction after children depart depart from the home.

work

A teratogen is

any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period.

A zygote that separates into two clusters of cells instead of just one produces

identical twins

About 50 percent of adults over age 85 are affected by

dementia

About___percent of North American and Western European teenage girls are affected by anorexia nervosa.

1

About ____ of divorced people remarry

two-thirds

About ____percent of U.S. adolescents report having had sexual intercourse.

50

According to B.F. Skinner, language is acquired as the baby babbles and parents reinforce those sounds that are most like words. This is an example of

operant conditioning

According to Erikson's theory, a mistrustful baby

protects herself by withdrawing from people and things around her.

According to Erickson, a sense of ____ can develop in middle childhood when family life fails to prepare children for school life or when teachers and peers destroy children's feelings of competence and mastery with negative responses.

inferiority

According to Erickson, despair occurs

when elders feel they have made many wrong decisions, yet time is too short to find an alternate route to integrity.

According to Erickson, once preschoolers have a sense of autonomy, they become less___ than they were as toddlers.

contrary.

According to Erickson, one of the major functions of play is to allow children to

try out new skills with little risk of criticism or failure

According to Erickson, they psychological conflict of early adulthood is

intimacy versus isolation

According to Erickson, the psychological conflict of middle childhood is

industry versus inferiority

According to Kubler-Ross, Mrs. Buffay's consultation of multiple specialists after her initial diagnosis of a terminal illness is consistent with which typical response to the prospect of death?

denial

According to Kublher-Ross, engaging in sympathetic listening is the best reaction to which typical response to the prospect of death?

bargaining

According to Kublher-Ross, when denial, anger, and bargaining fail to postpone the illness, the person

becomes depressed

According to Levinson, middle adulthood begins with a

transitional period

According to Levinson, which of the following is true about gender differences in dreams?

Most career-oriented women display split dreams involving both marriage and career.

According to Piaget, around age 11, young people enter the formal operational stage of development, in which they

are able to come up with new, general logical rules through internal reflection.

According to Piaget, one limitation of concrete operational though is that children's mental operations work poorly with

abstract ideas

According to Piaget, specific psychological structures called ____ are organized ways of making sense of experience.

schemes

According to Piaget, the balance between assimilation and accomodation

varies over time

According to Piaget, the most fundamental deficiency of preoperational thinking is

egocentrism

According to Sternberg's theory of love,

intimacy, passion, and commitment shift in emphasis as romantic relationships develop

According to Vygotsky, learning takes place

within the zone of proximal development

According to Vygotsky, children master activities through

joint activities with more mature members of their society

According to research on blended families, which child is most likely to have adjustment problems when his or her mother remarries?

Selma, a 15-year-old girl

According to some behaviorists, children rely on____ to rapidly acquire complex utterances

imitation

According to some researchers, cognitive development continues beyond Piaget's formal operational stage to the ___ level.

postformal thought

Adolescent drug experimentation

should not be taken lightly because drug use can lead to permanent injury or death

Adolescents who believe they are the focus of everyone's attention are experiencing

the imaginary audience

Adolescents whose parents engage in ___ decision making achieve better academically

joint parent-adolescent

After her son's death; Mrs. Woodworth reorganized her daily life and started to overcome her loneliness by volunteering at a teen crisis center. Mrs. Woodworth is in which phase of the grieving process?

restoration

Although hearing loss has less impact on self-care than vision loss, it affects

enjoyment of life

Andrew has well-developed emotional self-regulation. He feels that he is in control of his emotional experiences. Andrew has acquired

a sense of emotional self-efficacy

Animal studies on early sensory deprivation

verify the existence of sensitive periods in brain development

Ann Marie has begun visiting matchmaking websites. She should know that

18 percent of online ties that evolve into offline relationships last for more than a year.

Ann is having more frequent disagreements with her teenage daughter. If they argue over typical parent-adolescent issues, these disagreements are most likely

about everyday matters, such as driving, dating partners, and curfew

Around 2 months, babies begin to make vowel-like noises called

cooing

Around 3 to 4 months of age,

when infants gaze, smile, or vocalize, they expect their social partner to respond in kind.

Around 7 to 9 months, infants

begin to divide the speech stream into worldlike units.

Around age 60, Alex's lens entirely lost its capacity to adjust to objects at varying distances. Alex has a condition called

prebyopia

Around the middle of the first year, infants smile and laugh more

when interacting with familiar people

As adults age, the skin

loses elasticity and begins to sag

As in early adulthood, ____ tend to be emotionally closes during middle adulthood.

sister-sister bonds

As infants understand more about their world, they laugh

at events with subtler elements of surprise.

As people approach the end of middle adulthood, they focus on ______ goals.

longer-term, less personal

As people discover that they are no longer as good as they once were at certain tasks, they accommodate shifting to activities that depend

more on accumulated knowledge

Assisting a suicide is illegal in

many, but not all, U.S. states.

At birth, the brain is

nearer to its adult size than any other physical structure.

At first, baby Mario was easily awakened every night by a barking dog in his neighborhood. Several weeks later, Mario's sleep is not bothered by the dog's barks. This is an example of

habituation

At the beginning of the period of the embryo, the _____ system develops fastest.

nervous

Babies develop attachments to

a variety of familiar people

Baby Greer says "bababababa." This is an example of

babbling.

Barney and Cynthia met in college and married after they both graduated. They both work full-time. Which of the following is probably true?

Cynthia spends nearly twice as much time as Barney on housework

Basic emotions are

universal in humans

Because of life-saving medical technology,

three-fourths of deaths are long and drawn out

Because very few people would be willing to maintain a drastically reduced diet for most of their lifespan, scientists have begun to explore ______ that might yield the same benefits as calorie restriction, without dieting.

calorie-restriction mimetics

Before Jack's mother leaves for work every morning, she takes her car keys off of a hook on the wall. Now, as soon as she unhooks her car keys, Jack begins to cry. In this example, ____ is the conditioned response.

crying

Beginning in the middle childhood, a common fear is

the possibility of personal harm

Bernice and Leo never had children. They married in their thirties, and their efforts at fertility treatments did not succeed. Bernice and Leo are

involuntarily childless.

Between the 1970s and 1990s, the rise in daily caloric intake

was enough to add an extra pound every 20 days.

Biological aging

is under way in early adulthood

Boys show superior athletic performance during teenage years because

they develop larger skeletal muscles, hearts, and lung capacity than girls.

Breastfeeding for just a few weeks

offers some protection against respiratory and intestinal infections

By 2 years of age, a typical toddler's height is ____percent greater than at birth and birth weigh has____.

75: quadrupled

By 6 months of age, babies can categorize on the basis of

two correlated features

By middle adulthood, thinking is characterized by an increase in

specialization.

By the end of middle childhood, children display a strong desire for

group belonging

Carlie engages in strict dieting and excessive exercise accompanied by binge eating, often followed by purging. Carlie suffers from

bulimia nervosa

Carmen adopted her son just after his second birthday. What can you tell Carmen about the opportunity for attachment?

The first attachment bond can develop as late as 4 to 6 years of age

Carmen lost her job of 16 years as a result of downsizing. Which of the following is likely to be true?

She will be overqualified for many openings when she tries to find a new job.

Ceremonies that commemorate death

are strikingly different in various cultures

Child-directed speech and parent-child conversation

create a zone of proximal development in which children's language skills will expand

Children acquire motor skills

in highly individual ways

Children whose parents use a(n)____ child-rearing style feel especially good about themselves

authoritative

Cindy, age 48, cares for her two teenage sons and her ailing mother-in-law. Along with her mother, she is one of a handful of caregivers for her elderly grandmother. Cindy belongs to the _____ generation

sandwich

Compared with school-age children, preschoolers

spend shorter times involved in tasks and are easily distracted

Danielle saw a man carrying a sign that said "I'm hungry." She took the man's perspective, imagined how he felt, and asked her mom if she could give her allowance to the man so that he could buy some food. Danielle has developed

empathy

Despite declines in family size, ___ percent of Western babies grow up with at least on sibling.

80

Development is best understood as

a series of complex exchanges between nature and nurture

Directly observed characteristics, such as eye color and height, are called

phenotypes

Down syndrome most commonly results from

a failure of the twenty-first pair of chromosomes to separate during meosis

During the conservation-of-water experiment, Emme can focus on several aspects of the problem and relate them, rather than centering on just one aspect. Therefore, Emme is capable of

decentration

During midlife, most adults begin to

experience life-threatening health episodes-if not in themselves, then in their partners and friends.

During mitosis,

the chromosomes copy themselves

During the ___ month of pregnancy, the embryo responds to touch.

second

During adolescent growth spurt,

girls require somewhat less protein than boys because of their smaller size and muscle mass.

During the embryonic period of pregnancy, teratogens

cause the most serious damage to the developing orgnaism

During the first few weeks of life, newborns are most likely to smile

when they are full

During the preschool years, high self-esteem

greatly contributes to children's initiative during a period in which they must master many new skills

Elliot, age 11, is suddenly afraid to go to school. Which of the following is the best advice you can give to Elliot's parents?

Firmly insist that he return to school, and train him in how to cope with difficult situations

Emma left home to attend college and lived on her own until she got married. As her own children grew up and left home, her parenting responsibilities declined. She eventually retired and her husband died. This sequence of life phases that Emma has experienced is referred to as the

family life cycle

Even preschoolers with good language skills recall poorly because

they are not skilled at using memory strategies

Excessive blood glucose reduces blood flow to the hippocampus, a brain structure that plays an important role in

memory

Fifth and sixth graders describe ___ as the most influential people in their lives

parents

Fifty-year old James filed for divorce from his wife of 25 years. It is likely that he

is already involved romantically with someone else

Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, children in Public School 31 in Brooklyn, New York, unlike many war-traumatized children in the developing world,

received immediate intervention, which included a "trama curriculum"

For most new parents, the arrival of a new baby

does not cause significant marital strain

Four to 7-year-olds regard friendship as

pleasurable play and sharing toys

Frank, a kindergatener, says that Pat is his best friend on days they get along. But when a dispute arises he reverses himself. "Pat is not my friend!" Frank's parents should

not be concerned because friendships in early childhood do not have long-term enduring quality based on mutual trust.

Frequent punishment

promotes immediate compliance, but not lasting changes in behavior

From the freshman to the senior year of college, most students

become better at reflecting on the quality of their thinking

Generally, fathers ___ than mothers do

interact and play differently with babies

Generally, human chromosomes come in ____ matching pairs

23

Gia characterizes her life as full of energy and abundance, contradiction, and stress. According to Levinson, Gia is probably a(n)

young adult

Grief-stricken teenagers are

more likely than school-age children to become depressed

Heavy viewers of television violence

believe that there is much more violence in society than actually exists

Highly aggressive children tend to

seek out deviant peer groups

IQ often enters into educational decisions because it

predicts school performance and educational attainment

In Piaget's theor, 8 to 12-month olds can use ____ to solve simple problems

goal-directed

In Sterberg's triarchic theory, intelligent behavior involves balancing

analytical, creative, and practical intelligences

In ___, infant act on the environment, and stimuli that follow their behavior change the probability that the behavior will occur again

operant conditioning

In a Vygotskian classroom, assisted discovery is aided by ___ as children of varying abilities work in groups, teaching, and helping one another

peer collaboration

In child-centered preschool programs, teachers

provide a variety of activities from which children select

In early childhood, on average, children add ___inches in height and ____pounds in weight each year.

2 to 3; 5

In early pretending, toddlers use

only realistic objects

In general, when a middle-aged worker experiences and extreme shift in his or her career, the reason is typically

a personal crisis in the family

In healthy, physically fit women, ____ exercise is related to ___ birth weight

regular, moderate; increased

In late adulthood, ____ reduces stress, thereby promoting physical health and psychological well-being.

social support

In line with Kubler-Ross's observations, research confirms that

dying people are more likely to display denial after learning of their condition

In midlife, Janine, a successful dentist with a busy practice, is most likely to

scale back on her career and attend more to herself

In most cases, cerebrovascular dementia is caused by

atherosclerosis

In the United States, ____ are the leading cause of death among children more than 1 year old.

motor vehicle collisions

In the United States, drug taking peaks around ages

19 to 22

Isabella's mother died in May and her sister died in November. She is at risk for

bereavement overload

Jonathan view himself as reaching great heights of omnipotence and also sinking to unusual depths of despair. Which of the following cognitive distortions contribute to Jonathan's view?

the personal fable

Kubler-Ross recommends that family members and health professionals

not prolong denial by distorting the truth about the person's condition

Kathleen described death as "nothingness." Kathleen is probably a(n)

adolescent

Katie wonders when she will first be able to hear her fetus's heartbeat through a stethoscope. You tell her that this should happen by the

third month

Korto has a difficult time making decisions. Korto's mother can best help her make rational, logical choices by encouraging her to

identify the pros and cons of each choice and assess the likelihood of various outcomes

Late adulthood is best viewed as a(n)

extension of earlier periods and a time of continued potential

Lynn, a Canadian, and Sasha, a Russian, are probably about ____ percent genetically identical

99.1

Many U.S. retirees experience a(n)

decline in living standards

Marital satisfaction is at its peak

from middle to late adulthood

Middle-aged adults who have made desired life changes are higher in____ than those who acknowledge life regrets without making desired changes

confidence and assertiveness

Mr. Willet had a sudden heart attack. He did in a hospital emergency room. The staff was very busy and had little time for contact with his family. Mr. Willet's family members may need

some type of crisis intervention services

Mrs. Hensley is dying. Her heartbeat, circulation, breathing, and brain functioning stop but resuscitation is still possible. She is experiencing

clinical death

Mrs. Peabody was in an automobile accident. The doctor informed her family that there has been an irreversible cessation of all activity in the brain and the brain stem. Mrs. Peabody is experiencing

brain death

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