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Grounded theory method

developing theories

atypical of qualitative research

standardized quality of life questionnare

purpose of phenomenological research

describe experiences as they are lived

Data collection in many types of qualitative studies is considered complete when

a point of theoretical saturation is reached

Qualitative research is based on which of the following?

The belief that multiple "truths" and "realities" exist

here are many different approaches to qualitative research. What is one common thread that is evident in all types?

The process in each kind is a little like working a puzzle and putting pieces together to make it whole.

type of research involve at least a minor degree of control by the researcher to implement the study treatment?

quasi-experimental

type of research has a major focus on examining the long-term, short-term, negative, and positive results of care across a variety of settings

Outcomes research

Based on the Medical Outcomes Study Theoretical Framework, which of the following are examples of processes of care that should be considered when designing the study

nurse counseling regarding how to use ibuprofen for arthritis pain

dissemination of findings of outcomes research

A series of presentation and publications in many venues

clinical guideline panels contribute to outcomes research

They incorporate evidence on health outcomes into recommendations concerning management strategies

A financial incentive is a of care that can negatively influence cost outcomes for third-party payers.

sturcture

A researcher is looking particularly at the organizational hierarchy of a health care system. What specific aspect of quality health care would this address

Structure of care

Outcomes researchers study ways in which healthcare structure and process influence clinical end points, patient well-being, patient satisfaction, and

functional status

Why is it important to widely disseminate the findings of outcomes research

By disseminating the findings of outcomes research, myths can be dispelled or supported

A group of experts from around the world have been gathered together. They come from a variety of disciplines and represent many years of experience in the field. Each has read extensively on the topic of interest and shares what they have read. The goal of this meeting is to identify research priorities. What strategy is being employed in this situation

consensus knowledge building

A researcher conducting outcomes research is focusing on what component of patient care

end results

Which statement best reflects why nurse-sensitive quality indicators are extremely important to the profession

Nurse-sensitive quality indicators are directly related to what nurses do for the patient

A researcher designs a study that uses a random sampling method to decrease the likelihood of bias in the study sample. This strategy was used to implement

control

The primary purpose of nursing research is to

generate scientific knowledge to guide nursing practice

Quantitative and qualitative research approaches are particularly useful in nursing because they

balance each other

A nurse who reads research articles and incorporates research findings into nursing practice would demonstrate which of the following research roles

consumer

Ethnographic research focuses on

trying to understand cultures from an emic perspective

The components of rigor in qualitative research are

openness and adherence to the philosophical orientation.

Which of the following is a characteristic of phenomenological research methodology

bracketing

A research problem is defined as a(n):

general area of concern requiring study

The main reason for not including qualitative studies in reviews for evidence-based practice is

it is difficult to evaluate qualitative studies

Perhaps the biggest obstacle to outcomes research

it is extremely complex and difficult to plan and control

According to Donabedian's Health Care Quality Theory, what three factors must be considered when designing research focused on assessing healthcare quality

Structure, Process, and Outcomes

Cochrane Data Base

systematic review

Which of the following indexes would provide the largest number of relevant nursing sources

Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature

Which of the following research approaches would be most reasonable to use if a researcher is interested in finding out what it is like to live with a person who has a terminal illness

phenomological approach

The approach involves studying behaviors from within a culture

emic

Population-based studies offer which additional focus to research questions

Conditions are studied in the context of a community

Within CINAHL, what search field would you use to limit/revise your search by study type

publication type

The statement, "This study explores the experience of caregiving by adult daughters of parents with Alzheimer's disease," is an example of which of the following

research objective

Low-fat diet is related to lower total cholesterol and higher HDL (high-density lipoprotein)."

Complex, directional, associative

Cancer patients who receive music therapy complain less frequently of pain and require less pain medication than cancer patients not receiving music therapy

complex, directional

Normal saline flush with heparin is more effective than normal saline flush alone in maintaining patency of an intermittent intravenous si

simple, directional

In which situation would a null hypothesis be appropriate

The researcher predicts that there will be no difference among the groups

response, behavior, or outcomes that the researcher wants to predict or explain.

dependent variable

The purpose statement should identify the study variable(s) and what other key aspect of the study

population to be studied

Ethical research follows .

three principles set forth by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research.

In experimental research, the researcher's control of the "treatment" is referred to as

manipulation

A research design is best described as a:

blueprint for conducting the study.

Which of the following must be present in experimental research

Random assignment of subjects to groups

Control of threats to internal validity are most stringently considered in which type of study?

Quasiexperimental

Which of the following are important aspect to consider when critiquing a literature review?

Primary sources cited, references current (no more than 10 years old except for landmark studies,gaps in knowledge identified in a way that provides a basis for the study

The main goal of the Public Health Service (PHS) policy

is to ensure humane treatment of animals

Another name for probability sampling

random sampling

The population from which the researcher selects the actual study sample is referred to as

accessibe population

A researcher who does not disclose that a portion of the data from the original study sample was not used in the final data analysis could be accused of:

scientific misconduct

The population is the entire set of individuals who meet the sampling criteria.

target

A researcher looking over a patient's record for purposes of obtaining research data would be exposing that subject to what degree of harm

No anticipated effects

Which of the following will increase the external validity of a study

randomly selected sample

a psychological response of subjects who change their behavior simply because they are in a study.

hawethorne effect

The provision that research be differentiated to potential subjects as therapeutic or nontherapeutic is a part of the:

Declaration of Helsinki

A researcher wanting to explore the lives of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer obtains a random sample of the population. What part of the study will be strengthened because of the random sample?

external validity

A problem for nurses conducting quasi-experimental or experimental research is that many times a patient can not ethically be left without a treatment (i.e., put into a control group that receives nothing). What is the best solution for this problem?

Ensuring all patients receive the standard of care.

The concept of causality would be important in

experimental

threat to internal A validity of a study using a two-group pretest/-posttest design is that:

The pretest may sensitize subjects so they change their behavior or responses on the posttest

The term "internal validity" refers to the degree to which

the independent variable can be interpreted as being responsible for the effects on the dependent variable

At what point in the research process is the literature review conducted in a qualitative investigation

depends on the type of study

Subjects who participate in a study of patients with inflammatory bowel disease are described as the

sample

What international document was developed in 1949 to direct investigators in conducting ethical research?

nuremburg code

Sample size is deemed to be adequate when the researcher is detecting no new knowledge from additional subjects

qualitative sample size

Caucasian , african american, asian amaerican

nominal

In the research process, a critical factor in data collection is

consistency

Characteristics of the sample may affect the validity of a tool for use in a particular study

validity of a measure

The difference between the observed score and what exists in reality (true score) is called:

measurement error

The lowest level of measurement is

nominal

Is not useful in situations where the variable is dynamic and changing

reset retest reliablility

Data characteristics that can be ranked are measured on which scale

ordinal

Type I errors

Occurs when the researcher states that there is a statistically significant difference between groups (the null is rejected) when actually, there is NO difference between the groups (the null hypothesis should be accepted)

Descriptive statistics should be reported in every study for which of the following reasons

to show the sample characteristics

What statistical test would you use to test the difference in heart rate response to exercise between a group of cardiac patients involved in a formal cardiac rehabilitation program and another group exercising at home?

t-test

The mean scores of two groups participating in a study are exactly the same for a particular variable. This suggests that:

The average score is the same for each group

The median of the following set of numbers (12, 4, 13, 20, 4, 10, 14) is

12

Which of the following measures would be helpful in interpreting the relationship of a particular score to the distribution?

standard deviation

E. M. Rogers developed a theory concerned with:

research utilization

Utilization of research findings in clinical areas is slow because:

Nurses are not usually rewarded for using research findings in practice

A model of research utilization such as the Rogers model has been designed to

facilitate critical thinking and assist in decision making for research utilization

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is noted for development of which of the following

Clinical practice guidelines to direct health care practices

Which of the following is one of the characteristics of an innovation that determines the probability and speed at which an idea will be adopted?

compatability

What is a metasummary?

a synthesis of multiple primary qualitative studies to produce a narrative about a selected phenomenon

Which of the following is true about the relationship between reliability and validity

Unless it is reliable, it cannot be valid

Which of the following is true about Likert scales?

Scores from individual items can be summed for a total score.

Cronbach's alpha is used in tool development to determine:

internal consistency

The semantic differential scale consists of:

sets of bipolar adjectives measuring degree of feeling about a concept.

A major advantage of using a questionnaire for data collection is that a questionnaire

can be distributed to large groups of people

Which of the following can be measured using direct measures?

Concrete factors, such as age, gender, height, and weight

Which level of measurement is indicated when referring to a temperature of 70°

interval

Subjects respond to a visual analogue scale by:

drawing a mark across a 100-mm line that has bipolar anchors.

Under what condition would the mean, median, and mode be equal?

when scores are normally distributed

Which of the following will be most affected by scores that are extremely high or extremely low?

mean

A researcher notes that although no mathematical significance was found, some premature infants who were exposed to soothing music for 6 hours daily exhibited lower heart rates and less crying. This finding would have which type of significance?

clinical

The mean scores of two groups participating in a study are exactly the same for a particular variable. This suggests that:

the average score is the same for each group

Rogers indicates that the process by which adopters of research modify innovations to best meet their own needs is:

reinvention

Which of the following strategies for utilization is most amenable to adoption by baccalaureate nursing students and new graduates?

Reading professional journals critically and reporting the findings at staff meetings

During which stage of Rogers' Theory of Diffusion of Innovations is the use of mass media most effective?

knowledge

During which stage of Rogers' Theory of Diffusion of Innovations is the use of mass media most effective?

Confirmation

To detect a significant difference between two groups when the effect size is small, what should the researcher do

increase the sample size

Which of the following types of sampling is considered to be the weakest?

convineince

Which uses the higher level of measurement, temperature in Fahrenheit degrees or weight in kilograms?

weight

The aspect of reliability for which interrater reliability is appropriate is:

equivalence

The items in nominal-level instruments should be

mutually exclusive and exhuastive

One significant criterion to use when critiquing a literature review is to

make note of the source of the articles cited.

A researcher wants to obtain a sample of individuals who are HIV positive. Which of the following sampling methods would be the most effective way to obtain a sample?

Network Sampling

The first internationally recognized effort to establish ethical standards was the:

Neuremburg Code

Which of the following definitions best describes rigor in quantitative research?

Amount of control and percision exerted by the methodology

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