Respiratory short answer question

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Trace the route of air from the nares to alveolus. Name subdivisions of organs where applicable, and differentiated between conduction and respiratory zone structures.

External Nares (nostrils)
2. Pharynx (back of throat where nasal and buccal cavities join)
3. Glottis opening covered by the epiglottis when swallowing
4. Larynx (voice box) at the top of the trachea
5. Trachea (wind pipe - from the throat to the lungs)
6. Bronchi (primary, secondary and tertiary) contain cartilage.
Basically, one trachea splints into two primary bronchi (one to each side of the lungs - left & right); the two primary bronchi split into five secondary bronchi (to each lobe of the lungs - 3 on the right and 2 on the left); and the 5 tertiary bronchi split into several smaller branches. The diameter of the bronchi gets narrower as they branch.
7. Bronchioli are the even narrower branches off the tertiary bronchi. Bronchioli do not contain cartilage.
8. Alveoli are the end of the road. They are the structures at the end of the finest bronchioli that resemble bunches of grapes

Why is it important that the trachea is reinforced with cartilage rings?

The trachea is reinforced with cartilage rings in order to keep the airway open. These rings reinforce the anterior and lateral sides, but are actually "C" shaped as opposed to complete rings which allows the trachea to constrict somewhat when swallowing food.

Briefly explan the anatomical reason why most med had deeper voices than boys or women.

...

as boy's larnx enlarges during puberty, his true vocal cords become longer and thicker therfore it will cause them to vibrate more slowly so his voice becomes deeper

The lungs are mostly passageways and elastic tissue. A. what is the roldeof the elastic tissue? B. of the passageways?

Elastic fibers provide recoil to tissues that undergo repeated stretch, in the case of your lungs, which let you inhale and exhale.
The passageways are the route which allows oxygen and carbon dioxide to travel to and from your lungs

Describe the functional relationships between volume changes and gas flow into and out of lungs.

The diaphragm contracts and this increases the volume in the lungs. If we remember gas chemistry, an increase in volume leads to a decrease in pressure, because the two are inversely proportional. Mother nature always wants pressure to be constant, so air from outside the lungs enters to equalize the external and internal pressures. During exhalation, the diaphragm expands to decrease the lung volume. This forces air out of the lungs, again to maintain an equilibrium in air pressure.

Discuss how airway resistance, lung compliance, and alveolar surrface tension influence pulmonary ventilation

Alveolar surface tension - the little border between liquid and air in your alveoli. The oxygen in the air must get across the membrane to be absorbed by the blood vessels in your alveoli. The greater the surface tension, the harder it is for the oxygen to get into the blood. (example in some newborns, they don't have a certain chemical surfactant to reduce surface tension, and consequently can't breathe. They need treatment with a surfactant on the lung tissue) So the greater the surface tension, the lower the pulmonary ventilation.

Differentiate clearly between minute respiratory volume and alveolar ventilation rate.

Alveolar Minute Ventilation accounts for the volume moved into and out of the lungs that take place in gas exchange, whereas Minute Ventilation includes all volume of air that moves into and out of the lungs, those that do and dont involve themselves in gas exchange

Which provides a more accuratemeasure of ventilatory efficiency and why?

Minute respiratory volume is the total amount of gas that flows into and out of the respiratory tract in one minute. Alveolar ventilation rate takes into account the amount of air wasted in dead space areas and provides a measurement of the concentration of fresh gases in the alveoli at a particular time.
b. Alveolar ventilation rate provides a more accurate measure of ventilatory efficiency because it considers only the volume of air actually participating in gas exchange.

State Dalton's law of partial pressures. A.DefineHyperventilation, B. if you hyperventilate do you retain or expel more carbon dioxide? What effect does hyperventilation have on blood Ph

...Dalton's law of partial pressure states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressure exerted independently by each gas in the mixture. a. Hyperventilation is deep breathing that flushes carbon dioxide rapidly out of the blood.
b. When you hyperventilate, you expel more carbon dioxide.
c. Hyperventilation increases blood pH.

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