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All of the following are used in secondary sewage treatment EXCEPT

anaerobic digestion

The dense growth of algae in an algal bloom leads to increased oxygen levels in lakes that enhance the habitat for fish.

false

Residual chlorine must be maintained in

water treatment

All of the following organisms are involved in carbon fixation EXCEPT

mycorrhizae

In water treatment, the purpose of flocculation is to remove microbes, such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium.

false

The BOD is a measurement of the amount of bacteria present before and after the sewage treatment process.

false

Which of the following requires aerobic conditions?

secondary sewage treatment

sedimentation of sludge occurs in

primary treatment

The water from tertiary sewage treatment can be used as drinking water.

true

Bioremediation involves the use of microbes to degrade or detoxify pollutants.

true

Which of the following organisms is using sulfur as a source of energy?

Thiobacillus

Microorganisms in deep-sea vents and caves serve as autotrophic primary producers in the absence of sunlight.

true

Nitrogen fixation by bacteria occurs only in the root nodules of leguminous plants.

false

Biochemical oxygen demand is a measure of the

amount of organic matter present in a water sample

Which stage of sewage treatment produces methane

Sludge digestion

Which one of the following processes in sewage treatment requires bacterial metabolism?

removal of BOD

For the biogeochemical cycles of the following elements, which does NOT have an atmospheric cycle?

phosphorus

Drinking water supplies are routinely tested for the presence of

fecal coliforms

Aerobic respiration occurs in

secondary sewage treatment

The purpose of tertiary sewage treatment is to remove all of the phosphorus, nitrogen, and BOD left from secondary treatment.

true

Bioremediation of petroleum

takes place under aerobic conditions

Which wastewater treatment process produces BOD-containing effluent used for irrigation?

secondary sewage treatment

NH3 → NO2-

takes place under aerobic condiditons

Adding untreated sewage to a freshwater lake would cause the biochemical oxygen demand to

increase

All of the following are habitats for extremophiles EXCEPT

the atlantic ocean

6H2S + 6CO2 6S0 + glucose

takes place under anaerobic conditions

Which of the following is required for composting

periodic turning of the cmpost pile

Which wastewater treatment process is responsible for removal of most of the BOD in sewage?

secondary sewage treatment

Which of the following terms describes NO3- NO2- → N2O → N2?

denitrification

The release of phosphate-containing detergents into a river would

increase algal growth

All of the following are true of mycorrhizae EXCEPT

the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae are a type of ectomycorrhizae

Bacteria can increase the Earth's temperature by

producing ch4 which is a greenhouse gas

The bacteriological safety of drinking water is determined by testing water samples for the presence of human pathogens.

false

Which of the following is an assimilation process?

• Redwood tree: SO42- → Amino acids

Which of the following is NOT a symbiotic pair of organisms?

sulfur and thiobacillus

In small communities lacking municipal sewage systems, sewage is treated in septic systems or oxidation ponds

true

Which of the following do NOT fix atmospheric nitrogen

mycorrhizae

Untreated sewage is released into a river. Which of the following statements is FALSE?

the untreated sewage kills bacteria

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of fecal coliforms?

pathogenic

Filtration to remove protozoa occurs in

water treatment

Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is used for the recovery of _________ from ore.

Copper

Radiation works to preserve foods through

Lethal mutation of bacterial DNA

What role do lactic acid bacteria play in cheese production?

• Lactic acid bacteria carry out each of these roles in cheese production.

Commercial sterilization differs from complete sterilization in that commercial sterilization

• may result in the survival of thermophiles.

High-pressure processing of foods such as deli meats and precooked chicken strips targets pathogens such as C. botulinum.

false

Xanthan used in household products is produced by bacteria

• selected for their ability to utilize lactose and that are plant pathogens

Commercial sterilization of processed canned foods uses a 12D treatment which is based upon a theoretical population of 1012 C. botulinum endospores in a can of food. After treatment, there would theoretically be how many endospores left?

1 endospore

You are growing Bacillus subtilis in a bioreactor and notice that the growth rate has slowed and the pH has decreased. You suspect the bacteria are

fermenting

Vitamins A, B12, and E are commonly produced by microorganisms

false

All of the following are reasons for utilizing algae for biofuel production EXCEPT

• they produce a nondegradable waste product

Spoilage of canned foods due to inadequate processing, NOT accompanied by gas production, is

flat sour spoilage

A baker forgets to put yeast in his bread dough. Which of the following do you expect to happen to the bread as a result?

bread wont rise

Which of the following microorganisms is usually used in the fermentation of alcoholic beverages?

saccharomyces

Microorganisms play an active role in the formation of industrial products. Which of the following is mismatched?

algae- citric acid

Which of the following microbes produces a natural biopesticide

bacullus thuringiensis

Which of the following is an undesirable contaminant in wine-making?

acetobacter

Which of the following pertains to an improperly canned food product on a store shelf that bulges from microbial activity?

Mesophilic spoilage

The blue-green clumps observed in Roquefort cheese are a result of mold growth

true

Which of the following reactions is performed by yeast in wine-making?

• sugar → ethanol

Spoilage of canned foods stored at high temperatures, accompanied by gas production, is

• thermophilic anaerobic spoilage

Aseptic packaging utilizes which of the following to sterilize laminated paper or plastic prior to filling with food?

• hot hydrogen peroxide solution

The longer interior-ripened cheeses are permitted to ripen, the milder the taste of the cheese.

false

Industrial canning is achieved using a pressure cooker which operates in a manner similar to an autoclave.

false

All of the following are advantages of a bioreactor instead of a flask culture EXCEPT

• None of the answers is correct; all of these are advantages of using a bioreactor instead of a flask culture

The following steps are required for making cheese. What is the second step

inoculation with lactic acid bacteria

All of the following are industrial products produced by microbes EXCEPT

uranium

canning preserves food

• by exposure to high heat.

Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium are mixed with peat moss to increase nitrogen fixation.

true

All of the following are industrial products produced using microbial fermentations EXCEPT

saccharin

A large industry exists based on the synthesis of amino acids by microorganisms.

true

Canning works to preserve foods through

creation of anaerobic environment and high heat

What process does yeast use to produce ethanol for automobile fuel from corn?

fermentation

If an industrial microbiologist works with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, he is likely to be involved in copper mining.

true

Aeptic packaging works to preserve foods through

exposure to high heat

You are growing Bacillus subtilis in a bioreactor and notice that the growth rate has slowed and the pH has decreased. What could you add?

oxygen

Bioreactors are widely used for industrial fermentation. Which of the following conditions must be closely monitored for optimal fermentation

temperature, pH, oxygen levels

Microbial products can be improved by all of the following EXCEPT

sterilization

Mesophilic bacteria grow best at temperatures of 60°C.

false

All of the following foods are produced using microbial fermentations EXCEPT

ketchup

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

bacillus beer

All of the following are true of irradiation methods used for food preservation and sterilization EXCEPT

• residual radioactivity is left behind on many foods

All of the following are fuels produced by microorganisms EXCEPT

cellulose

Biomass is a renewable energy source derived from the organic matter produced by living organisms. All of the following are sources of biomass EXCEPT

oxidation of metals

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