2nd Great Awakening
series of evangelical Protestant revivals that swept over America; highly emotional camp meetings
parts of New York that were so heavily evangelized during the Great Awakening that it was said to have no fuel (unconverted population) left to burn (convert)
broad collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions that are found among conservative Protestant Christians
(Adventists) were followers of William Miller; believed that precise calculations were possible and that the exact date of the return of the Messiah could be known
(1) Fewer parents controlled their child's selection of a mate; (2) Wives acted more like companions; (3) Divorce was difficult, but somewhat less restrictive (infidelities)
The Cult of Domesticity (aka- The Cult of True Womanhood)
"Home was the women's place and men were almost always the breadwinners."
The "doctrine of two spheres"
men occupied the public sphere of economic affairs and women became guardians of the private sphere of the home
large growth of free public schools from 1820-1850; schools were also seen as a way to reduce the gap between the rich and poor
policies that actually hurt poor families who were dependent upon their children working
served as the basis for reading and morals (created by PA teacher, William McGuffey)
founded by two Presbyterian ministers; first college in the US to regularly admit black students; oldest college to admit women
publicized the poor conditions of prisons, poorhouses, and insane asylums, and lobbied for corrective actions
American Colonization Society
the primary vehicle to support the return of free African Americans to what was considered greater freedom in Africa; helped to found the colony of Liberia
Arthur and Lewis Tappan
co-founded the American Antislavery Society and "Liberator" with Garrison; also financially supported the Underground Railroad
Theodore Dwight Weld
minister turned abolitionist, writer, editor, and speaker; co-wrote "American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses"
black abolitionist who published "Walker's Appeal;" advocated violence against slave masters
black abolitionist; escaped slave who wrote "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass"
spoke for women's rights, abolition, and prison reform; delivered the speech "Ain't I A Woman?"
Sarah and Angelina Grimke
"rebellious" daughters of a South Carolina slaveholder; became famous abolitionists and women's rights advocates
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
outraged over he refusal of the male antislavery leaders to seat female delegates at the London Anti-Slavery Conference; later organized plans for the nation's first women's rights convention
bloomers (replaced long skirts) were named after her; temperance and social reformer who published "The Lily"
believed that individuals could transcend material reality and ordinary understanding and reach a higher form of reason; main theme of American Romanticism
Ralph Waldo Emerson
most admired transcendentalist; wrote an address to Harvard called "The American Scholar" that encouraged Americans to create a new American culture