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2nd Great Awakening

series of evangelical Protestant revivals that swept over America; highly emotional camp meetings

Timothy Dwight

Calvinist president of Yale who led campus revivals

Lyman Beecher

taught predestination (Calvinism); father of Harriet Beecher Stowe

burned-over districts

parts of New York that were so heavily evangelized during the Great Awakening that it was said to have no fuel (unconverted population) left to burn (convert)

Evangelicalism

broad collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions that are found among conservative Protestant Christians

Millerites

(Adventists) were followers of William Miller; believed that precise calculations were possible and that the exact date of the return of the Messiah could be known

Temperance

opposed alcohol

Cold Water Army

intent on removing alcohol; pledged to drink nothing but water

Maine Laws

Maine became the first state to prohibit alcohol

Neal Dow

sponsored the Maine Laws; candidate for president on the Prohibition ticket in 1880

Martha Washington Societies

worked to assist and reform female alcoholics

T.S Arthur

became famous for his temperance novel "Ten Nights in a Bar Room and What I Saw There"

Marriage Reform

(1) Fewer parents controlled their child's selection of a mate; (2) Wives acted more like companions; (3) Divorce was difficult, but somewhat less restrictive (infidelities)

The Cult of Domesticity (aka- The Cult of True Womanhood)

"Home was the women's place and men were almost always the breadwinners."

The "doctrine of two spheres"

men occupied the public sphere of economic affairs and women became guardians of the private sphere of the home

Public schools

large growth of free public schools from 1820-1850; schools were also seen as a way to reduce the gap between the rich and poor

Horace Mann

lawyer/politician from MA who advocated free public education

Noah Webster

created the dictionary that helped to standardize the American vocabulary

compulsory attendance

policies that actually hurt poor families who were dependent upon their children working

Protestant ethic

stressed industry, punctuality, sobriety, and frugality (taught in schools)

McGuffey Readers

served as the basis for reading and morals (created by PA teacher, William McGuffey)

Lyceums

debating societies

Troy Female Seminary

NY; founded by Emma Willard in 1814

Hartford Female Seminary

CN; founded by Catharine Beecher in 1823

Mount Holyoke College

MA; founded by Mary Lyon in 1837

Oberlin College

founded by two Presbyterian ministers; first college in the US to regularly admit black students; oldest college to admit women

Thomas Gallaudet

started a school for the deaf (American School for the Deaf)

"Discovery of Asylums"

Asylums were created in the 1820s to house criminals, lunatics, and paupers

Dorothea Dix

publicized the poor conditions of prisons, poorhouses, and insane asylums, and lobbied for corrective actions

American Colonization Society

the primary vehicle to support the return of free African Americans to what was considered greater freedom in Africa; helped to found the colony of Liberia

William Lloyd Garrison

launched abolitionist journal called The Liberator

American Antislavery Society

founded by Garrison; society against slavery

Arthur and Lewis Tappan

co-founded the American Antislavery Society and "Liberator" with Garrison; also financially supported the Underground Railroad

Theodore Dwight Weld

minister turned abolitionist, writer, editor, and speaker; co-wrote "American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses"

Liberty Party

first abolitionist political party

David Walker

black abolitionist who published "Walker's Appeal;" advocated violence against slave masters

Frederick Douglas

black abolitionist; escaped slave who wrote "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass"

Sojourner Truth

spoke for women's rights, abolition, and prison reform; delivered the speech "Ain't I A Woman?"

Harriet Tubman

black abolitionist woman who helped lead the Underground Railroad

William Still

"The Father of the Underground Railroad"

Sarah and Angelina Grimke

"rebellious" daughters of a South Carolina slaveholder; became famous abolitionists and women's rights advocates

London Anti-Slavery Conference

international antislavery conference 1840

Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton

outraged over he refusal of the male antislavery leaders to seat female delegates at the London Anti-Slavery Conference; later organized plans for the nation's first women's rights convention

Seneca Falls Convention

first women's rights convention (1848)

Declaration of Sentiments

issued at the Seneca Falls Convention that listed women's rights

Amelia Bloomer

bloomers (replaced long skirts) were named after her; temperance and social reformer who published "The Lily"

Lucy Stone

toured the country, lecturing against slavery and for women's rights

Susan B. Anthony

gave nearly 100 speeches per year on women's rights for 45 years

Utopianism

movement to attempt to create the "perfect society"

Oneida Community

practiced Christian perfectionism; believed Jesus' 2nd coming had already occurred

Transcendentalism

believed that individuals could transcend material reality and ordinary understanding and reach a higher form of reason; main theme of American Romanticism

Ralph Waldo Emerson

most admired transcendentalist; wrote an address to Harvard called "The American Scholar" that encouraged Americans to create a new American culture

The Dial

main publication of the Transcendentalists

Brook Farm

communal group of transcendentalists

Henry David Thoreau

young disciple of Emerson; associated with Walden Pond and "Civil Disobedience"

Walden Pond

Thoreau's experiment in solitary living

"Civil Disobedience"

Thoreau's essay where he said that people have a duty to stand up to a government which practices injustice

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