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Some psychologists believe that rats develop mental representations of mazes they have explored. These representations have been called

cognitive maps

If a baseball player gets a hit after tapping the plate with the bat, he is more likely to repeat that behavior the next time he's up to the plate. Which of the following best explains this superstitious behavior?

reinforced behavior, even if it is accidental, is more likely to be repeated

Because Saleem was spanked on several occasions for biting electric cords, he no longer does so. Saleem's behavior change best illustrates the value of

operant conditioning

Experiments suggest that children exposed to a model who says one thing and does another will

talk in ways consistent with what the model says and act in a way consistent with what the model does

Who introduced the term behaviorism?

John B. Watson

Blake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot of carpet he lays rather than with an hourly wage. Blake prefers working on a ___ schedule of reinforcement

foxed-ratio

Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ___ schedule

variable-ratio

Five-year old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of

shaping

After prolonged exposure to television violence, viewers became more indifferent to violence when later viewing a brawl, whether on TV or in real life. This finding best illustrates

desensitization

Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate

classical conditioning

The process of reinforcing successively closer approximations to a desired behavior is called

shaping

Robert was late for school, so he parked in a space reserved for teachers. Later, when he went to get his car, he noticed a yellow parking ticket under the windshield wiper. The parking ticket would be considered

positive punishment

Bandura's experiments indicate that ___ is important in the process of learning

modeling

What us the difference between a primary and a conditioned reinforcer

Primary reinforcers are unlearned and innately satisfying; conditioned reinforcers are learned

Which of the following is an unconditioned response

sweating in hot weather

Money is to food as ___ is to ___

secondary reinforcer; immediate reinforcer

After pigs learned to pick up and deposit wooden coins in a piggy bank, the pigs subsequently dropped the coins repeatedly and pushed them with their snouts. This best illustrates the importance of ___ in operant conditioning

biological predispositions

Golf instruction that reinforces short putts before attempting to reinforce long putts best illustrates the process of

shaping

If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates

associative learning

Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit

intrinsic motivation

Spontaneous recovery refers to the

reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

An integrated understanding of associative learning in terms of genetic predispositions, culturally learned preferences, and the predictability of certain associations is most clearly provided by

a biopsychosocial approach

Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)

negative reinforcer

Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with

novel tastes

Electronically recording, amplifying, and displaying information regarding subtle physiological responses is called

biofeedback

Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks

developed learned helplessness

Monica's psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she to her own dad. Her reactions to her therapist best illustrate the importance of

generalization

Cats received a fish reward whenever they maneuver themselves out of an enclosed puzzle box. With successive trials, the cats escaped from the box with increasing speed. This illustrates

the law of effect

In Pavlov's experiments, the dogs salivation triggered by the taste of food was a(n)

unconditioned response

In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the CS was

the sound of a tone

A trainer wants to train a chicken to peck a key to obtain food. If she wants the chicken to learn this trick quickly and the behavior to be resistant to extinction, she should use ___ reinforcement until the response is mastered and then follow with a period of ___ reinforcement

continuous; partial

Because Mandisa always picked up her newborn daughter when she cried, he daughter is now a real crybaby. In this case, picking up the infant served as a(n) ___ for crying.

positive reinforcer

After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates

observational learning

Myron quit gambling after he lost more than a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects of

punishment

Learning associations between one's own personal actions and resulting events is most relevant to the process of

operant conditioning

A dramatic increase in children's violent play immediately after they viewed a video of the Power Rangers illustrates the role of television as a source of

observational learning

Two-year-old Philip was recently clawed by the neighbor's cat. Philip's newly developed tendency to fear all small animals demonstrates the process of

generalization

John B. Watson emphasized that

learning should be explained without any reference to mental processes

After Pavlov had conditioned a dog to salivate to a tone, he repeatedly sounded the tone without presenting the food. As a result, ___ occurred

extinction

Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ___ is to ___

positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer

Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of

discrimination

Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying

operant conditioning

A child's learned fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n)

conditioned response

After repeatedly taking alcohol spiked with a nausea-producing dug, people with alcohol dependence may fail to develop an aversive reaction to alcohol because they blame their nausea on the drug. This best illustrates the importance of ___ in classical conditioning

cognitive process

The infant Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was associated with a loud noise. In this example, fear of the white rat was the

CR

Coffee shops that reward customers with one free cup of coffee after every ten coffee purchases are using a ___ reinforcement schedule

fixed-ratio

Most researchers who has examined the effects of viewing televised aggression conclude that

viewing violence leads children and teenagers to behave aggressively

On the first day of class, Professor Wallace tells her geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace's surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a ___ schedule

variable-ratio

A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a pecking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face is a(n)

discriminative stimulus

If a ringing bell causes a dog to salivate because the bell has been regularly associated with food in the mouth, the UR is the

salivation to the food in the mouth

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