Water Soluble Vitamins Ch 10

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Which of the following is a feature of vitamins?
a. Many serve in the role of enzyme inhibitors
b. Structurally, many are found linked together
c. Several may be oxidized to yield 4 kcalories per gram
d. The quantities present in foods are measured in micrograms or milligrams

The quantities present in foods are measured in micrograms or milligrams

What is a precursor?

A substance that is used to synthesize another compound

What is the bioavailability of a vitamin in food?

The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body

General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except
a. they must be consumed daily.
b. toxic levels in the body are rarely found.
c. they are absorbed directly into the blood.
d. excesses are eliminated from the kidneys.

They must be consumed daily

All of the following are general characteristics of the fat-soluble vitamins except
a. excesses are eliminated from the kidneys.
b. absorption is via the lymphatic circulation.
c. several of them require protein carriers for transport.
d. they can be stored in relatively large amounts in certain body tissues.

Excess are eliminated from the kidneys

Cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect the content of: a) folate, b) Vitamin A, c) Riboflavin, d) Vitamin B12

Vitamin A

Which of the following vitamins would be removed in the production of skim milk?
a. Thiamin
b. Vitamin A
c. Riboflavin
d. Vitamin B12

Vitamin A

What is the primary excretory route for water soluble vitamins?

Kidneys

When thiamin is consumed in excess of needs, how does the body treat the excess?

Excreted primarily in the urine

What is the chief function of the B vitamins?

Coenzyme participation

Which of the following explains why B vitamin deficiencies lead to lack of energy?
a. B vitamins are a source of kilocalories
b. Absorption of carbohydrates and fats is decreased
c. Oxygen for energy metabolism cannot be transported to the cells
d. Coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts

Coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts

Which of the following describes the basic function of a coenzyme?
a. Attaches to RNA to assist in the synthesis of an enzyme
b. Attaches to cell membranes to assist in uptake of an enzyme
c. Attaches to an enzyme and allows a chemical reaction to take place
d. Attaches to an enzyme, which allows for transport of the enzyme through the circulation

Attaches to an enzyme and allows a chemical reaction to take place

Which of the following functions has a requirement for thiamin: blood coagulation, Formation of red blood cells, Energy release from energy yielding nutrients, or formation of epithelial mucopolysaccharides?

Energy release from energy yielding nutrients

What is the primary chemical reaction in which thiamin participates as a coenzyme

Assists in removal of one carbon units from compounds involved in energy metabolism

What is the coenzyme form of thiamin?

Thiamin Pyrophosphate

Beriberi results from a deficiency of

Thiamin

Which of the following is most likely to lead to Beriberi: High intakes of white rice, Low intakes of whole grains, High intakes of unrefined rice, low intakes of enriched grains?

High intakes of white rice

The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome may be treated with supplements of

Thiamin

Which of the following is a characteristic of thiamin nutrition: The coenzyme contains pyrosulfate, It is required for regeneration of folate, It is required for regeneration of niacin, It is an integral part of the nerve cell membrane

It is an integral part of your nerve cell membrane

Approximately what % of alcoholics exhibit thiamin deficiency?

20

All of the following are characteristic of thiamin nutrition except
a. severe deficiency may lead to edema.
b. severe deficiency may occur without edema.
c. recommended intakes are stated in "equivalents."
d. recommended intakes are based primarily on participation in enzyme activity

Recommended intakes are stated in equivalents

Which of the following provides the most thiamin per serving size: ham, squash, whole milk, whole grain breads?

Ham

Which of the following is a property of thiamin nutrition?
a. Participates in activation of prothrombin
b. Poor sources include seafood and cheeses
c. Significant amounts are found in leafy vegetables
d. Deficiency results in cheilosis and marked dermatitis

Poor choices include seafood and cheeses

How does the method of cooking affect thiamin stability?
a. Microwaving the food conserves much of the thiamin
b. Prolonged heating of the food has little, if any, effect on the thiamin
c. Boiling the food tends to conserve thiamin by forming a stable, hydrated complex
d. Steaming the food can lead to substantial thiamin loss due to the high heat needed to form the steam

Microwaving the food conserves much of the thiamin

Which of the following contains the highest concentration of thiamin in muscle tissue: Pig, fish, steer, chicken

Pig

Of the following, which is the richest food source of thiamin: lettuce, soy milk, cow milk, refined rice?

Soy milk

Riboflavin in its coenzyme form functions in the transfer of

hydrogen atoms

Which of the following vitamins is involved substantially in energy transformation reactions?

Riboflavin

What is indicative of a dietary deficiency of riboflavin?

Inflamed mouth membranes

Which food group ordinarily contains the highest amount of riboflavin when expressed per kcalorie?

vegetables

What is ariboflavonosis?

The vitamin B2 deficiency disease

The signs and symptoms of riboflavin deficiency are known collectively as

Ariboflavonosis

Riboflavin needs are more difficult to meet when the diet is low in

dairy foods

Riboflavin is most easily destroyed when exposed to

UV light

What type of container is best for protecting the riboflavin content of milk?

Cardboard

The coenzyme FAD is formed from what vitamin?

Riboflavin

Milk and milk products provide liberal amounts of which of the following vitamins: Biotin, Folate, Riboflavin, Pantothenic acid, More than one is correct

riboflavin

A deficiency of what vitamin produces a characteristic cracking and redness at the corners of the mouth?

Riboflavin

Which of the following is a property of riboflavin in nutrition?
a. Stability to heat is good
b. Deficiency leads to beriberi
c. Requirements are proportional to body weight
d. Significant amounts are found in citrus products

Stability to heat is good

Which of the following is a property of niacin in nutrition?
a. It is susceptible to destruction in foods exposed to light
b. It participates primarily in reactions involving amino acids
c. It is soluble in both water and lipids depending upon its chemical form
d. It can be synthesized in the body from the essential amino acid tryptophan

It can be synthesized into the body from the essential amino acid tryptophan

Which of the following properties is shared by niacin and riboflavin coenzymes?
a. Unstable to irradiation
b. Unstable to metal cooking utensils
c. Acceptance and transfer of hydrogen atoms
d. Acceptance and transfer of carboxyl groups

Acceptance and transfer of hydrogen atoms

When the diet contains an adequate amount of protein, what amino acid can be used by the body to synthesize the niacin?

Tryptophan

Which nutrient functions to prevent the appearance of a bilateral, symmetrical dermatitis, primarily on areas exposed to the sun?

Niacin

The vitamin deficiency pellagra means

tough skin

A low protein diet in which corn is a principle food has been found to cause a deficiency of what vitamin?

niacin

What vitamin deficiency disease appeared in people who had subsisted on a diet high in corn and low in protein?

pellagra

Which of the following is not among the common signs of pellagra?
a. Diarrhea
b. Dementia
c. Dermatitis
d. Desiccation

Desiccation

A general niacin deficiency is known to be manifested in abnormalities of all of the following organs/systems except
a. skin.
b. skeletal system.
c. nervous system.
d. gastrointestinal tract.

Skeletal system

Tryptophan can be used in the body to synthesize
a. FAD.
b. biotin.
c. niacin.
d. inositol.

Niacin

While researching your southern family history, you find that your grandmother had a sister who died fairly young. The symptoms leading up to her death included diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia. Because the family led a poor, corn-farming existence, you suspect this relative died of
a. scurvy.
b. cancer.
c. pellagra.
d. beriberi.

pellagra

Which of the following substances is found in corn and contributes to the development of pellagra?
a. Avidin
b. Leucine
c. Phytates
d. Phenylalanine

Leucine

What term identifies the characteristic tingling sensations and reddening of the skin after ingesting a pharmacologic dose of nicotinic acid?
a. Niacin flush
b. NAD dermatitis
c. Niacin erythrema
d. Bilateral symmetrical dermatitis

Niacin flush

Which of the following overt side effect(s) is likely to appear after a person ingests a high quantity of nicotinic acid?
a. Constipation
b. Mental confusion
c. Painful, tingling, itching sensation
d. Hair loss, bloating, and photophobia

Painful, tingling, itching sensation

When taken in large doses, which of the following vitamins is associated with liver injury and peptic ulcers?
a. Niacin
b. Thiamin
c. Vitamin B6
d. Vitamin B12

Niacin

Large doses of nicotinic acid are known to result in all of the following except
a. dilation of capillaries.
b. increased HDL cholesterol.
c. lowering of LDL cholesterol.
d. disappearance of learning disorders in children.

Disappearance of learning disorder in children

Which of the following is a feature of niacin nutrition?
a. Low doses may lead to kidney stones
b. High doses may lower blood cholesterol
c. Low doses may lead to heartburn and low blood pressure
d. High doses may elevate red blood cell count in mildly anemic individuals

High dose may lower blood cholesterol

Your friend Jane just returned from the doctor who diagnosed her with a specific vitamin B toxicity. However, she doesn't recall the name of the vitamin. Which of the following is the only possible culprit associated with toxicity symptoms?
a. Niacin
b. Biotin
c. Riboflavin
d. Vitamin B12

Niacin

What is the approximate niacin RDA for adults?
a. 15 niacin equivalents
b. 30 niacin equivalents
c. 15 tryptophan equivalents
d. 30 tryptophan equivalents

15 niacin equivelants

Among the following, which would be the best source of niacin equivalents?
a. Milk
b. Broccoli
c. Chicken
d. Strawberries

Chicken

Your brother Bob is a competitive body builder. His trainer suggested that he consume 4 egg white omelets per day. Bob remembers a warning about a possible vitamin deficiency from consuming too many egg whites and asks if he should follow the prescribed diet. Your reply to Bob is that he should not
a. be concerned as long as he consumes both the yolk and whites of the eggs.
b. follow the diet, since the avidin in the egg whites could bind to niacin and prevent its absorption.
c. follow the diet, since the avidin in the egg whites could bind to biotin and prevent its absorption.
d. be concerned, because, when the eggs are cooked, the avidin protein is denatured, and thus does not pose a problem for deficiency disease.

Be concerned, because when eggs are cooked, the avidin protein is denatured, and thus does not pose a problem for deficiency disease

Features of biotin in nutrition include all of the following except
a. it functions in the breakdown of amino acids and fatty acids.
b. it functions as a carrier of carbon dioxide in energy metabolism.
c. a deficiency can be induced by ingesting large quantities of raw egg whites.
d. a deficiency can be induced by ingesting large amounts of thiamin and folic acid, which interfere with its absorption.

a deficiency can be induced by ingesting large amounts of thiamin and folic acid, which interfere with its absorption

Among the following compounds that serve as coenzymes in metabolism, which is considered a vitamin for human beings?
a. Biotin
b. Inositol
c. Lipoic acid
d. Orotic acid

Biotin

Which of the following foods contains a protein that decreases bioavailability of biotin?
a. Aged wine
b. Aged cheese
c. Raw egg whites
d. Raw cauliflower

Raw eggwhites

Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?
a. Folate
b. Biotin
c. Cyanocobalamin
d. Pantothenic acid

Biotin

Biotin can be synthesized by

intestinal bacteria

What is the adult Adequate Intake for biotin?
a. 3 µg
b. 30 µg
c. 3 mg
d. 30 mg

30 micrograms

What vitamin forms a part of coenzyme A?
a. Biotin
b. Folate
c. Riboflavin
d. Pantothenic acid

Pantothenic acid

What is the AI for pantothenic acid for adults?

5 mg

Which of the following vitamins is known to sustain substantial losses during processing of food?
a. Biotin
b. Niacin
c. Vitamin B12
d. Pantothenic acid

Pantothenic acid

Forms of vitamin B6 include all of the following except
a. pyridoxal.
b. pyridoxine.
c. pyrimidine.
d. pyridoxamine.

pyrimidine

Which of the following vitamins is stored primarily in muscle tissue?
a. Biotin
b. Folate
c. Vitamin B6
d. Pantothenic acid

Vitamin B6

The chief symptoms of early vitamin B6 deficiency include
a. confusion and depression.
b. muscle cramps and stiffness.
c. profound fatigue and anemia.
d. hyperactivity and shortness of breath.

confusion and depression

What vitamin is involved intensively in amino acid metabolism?
a. Biotin
b. Vitamin A
c. Vitamin B6
d. Riboflavin

Vitamin B6

Which of the following is not a characteristic of vitamin B6 in nutrition?
a. It is stored in muscle tissue
b. It is required in amounts proportional to energy expenditure
c. It can lead to irreversible nerve damage when taken in large doses
d. It functions, in part, in the synthesis of glycine and glutamic acid

It is required in amounts proportional to energy expenditure

All of the following are features of vitamin B6 metabolism except
a. a deficiency or toxicity leads to depression.
b. its destruction and excretion are promoted by alcohol intake.
c. it functions primarily as the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate.
d. it enhances physical performance when supplied at a level of l mg/g of dietary protein.

It enhances physical performance when supplied at a level of 1 mg/g of dietary protein

What is the tolerable UL intake for Vitamin B6?

100 mg

A common drug for the treatment of tuberculosis is known to markedly interfere in the metabolism of vitamin

B6

Irreversible nerve damage has been reported in people taking large doses of

B6

Which of the following statements reflects our knowledge of water-soluble vitamin toxicity?
a. Toxicity symptoms for vitamin B6 can be severe and irreversible
b. Toxicity symptoms for vitamin C include constipation and hyperactivity
c. Toxicities of the B vitamins occur almost as often from foods as from supplements
d. Toxicity of niacin has been reported in body builders taking large amounts of amino acid supplements

Toxicity symptoms for vitamin B6 can be severe and irreversible

In what major way does alcohol intake affect vitamin B6 metabolism?
a. It reduces acetaldehyde formation
b. It increases fecal excretion of the vitamin
c. It dislodges the PLP coenzyme from its enzyme
d. It interferes with synthesis of the PLP coenzyme

It dislodges the PLP coenzyme from its enzyme

What is the RDA for Vitamin B6?

1.3 mg

Which food group is richest in vitamin B6 in a per-kcaloric basis?

vegetables

Which of the following is an essential nutrient for human beings?
a. Folate
b. Inositol
c. Methoxatin
d. Lipoic acid

Folate

Pteroylglutamic acid is also known as

folate

All of the following are properties of folate in nutrition except
a. it is needed for proper functioning of vitamin B12.
b. it functions primarily in the transfer of amino groups.
c. the coenzyme of folate requires vitamin B12 to function properly.
d. it requires enzymes on the intestinal mucosa to enhance its absorption from most foods.

It functions primarily in the transfer of amino groups

Which of the following characteristics is shared by vitamin B12 and folate?
a. Both are required for nucleic acid synthesis
b. Both require intrinsic factors for their release from food proteins
c. Both are found in significant amounts in green leafy vegetables
d. Both are considered problem nutrients for strict vegetarians

Both are required for nucleic acid synthesis

Which vitamin goes through enterohepatic circulation?

Folate

Which vitamin is usually found in a form that is bound to one or more glutamic acid molecules in food?

folate

A person with a disorder that limits absorption of bile is at increased risk for deficiency of

folate

What is the most likely explanation for the impaired functioning of the GI tract resulting from folate deficiency?
a. Since folate is required for bile synthesis, folate deficiency results in insufficient bile production, thereby promoting fat malabsorption and diarrhea
b. Since folate functions, in large part, in the process of cell renewal, a deficiency slows mucosal cell replacement, thereby resulting in decreased GI functioning
c. The anemia of folate deficiency results in decreased oxygen supply to body tissues, with the intestines being particularly affected because of their high metabolic activity
d. Since folate functions, in part, in the synthesis of pancreatic digestive enzymes, a deficiency leads to decreased enzymatic capacity in the intestines, thereby resulting in malabsorption

Since folate functions in large part in the process of cell renewal, a deficiency slows mucosal cell replacement, thereby resulting in decreased GI functioning

Which of the following is not a feature of folate nutrition?
a. Most food folate is bound to a string of amino acids
b. Folate is actively secreted back into the GI tract with bile
c. Food folate must be hydrolyzed by intestinal cell enzymes prior to absorption
d. Folate must be methylated by homocysteine prior to crossing the brush border membrane

Folate must be methylated by homocysteine prior to crossing the brush border membrane

What % of dietary folate is bioavailable?

50

The % of bioavailability of a folate supplement taken on an empty stomach is

100

How many dietary folate equivalents are provided by 100 µg of a folate supplement?

170

What fraction of women capable of becoming pregnant ingest the RDA for folate?

1/2

Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of

folate

Which of the following is a type of neural tube defect?
a. Scurvy
b. Beriberi
c. Pellagra
d. Spina bifida

Spina bifida

Which of the following is a feature of folate nutrition?
a. The coenzyme form is FAD
b. Dairy foods are a poor source of folate except for goat's milk
c. Insufficient folate intake results in deficiency of homocysteine
d. Synthetic folate is 70% more available than naturally occurring food folate

Synthetic folate is 70% more available than naturally occurring folate

By law, what amount of folate (µg) must be added to 100 g of food products such as breads, flour, and rice?

140

Nicole is pregnant and is trying to monitor her folate intake. She is eating foods high in folate as well as taking folate supplements, and she is having a hard time determining how many dietary folate equivalents she is consuming. Below is a list of her daily intake with respect to folate:
½ cup of cooked lentils (180 μg food folate)
½ cup of fresh orange juice (60 μg food folate)
folate supplement (200 μg)

580

Because of adverse interactions with other vitamins, a safe daily folate intake is up to

1000 micrograms

A deficiency of which vitamin results in accumulation of homocysteine in the blood

folate

The appearance of vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms may be delayed due to high intake of supplements of

folate

What vitamin is involved mainly with the replacement of red blood cells and digestive tract cells?

Folate

Which of the following substances is known to adversely affect folate utilization?
a. Insulin
b. Calcium supplements
c. Regular use of antacids
d. Vitamin B12 supplements

Regular use of antacids

Which of the following is representative of folate availability in foods?
a. Good sources are dairy products and meats
b. Poor sources are fruit juices and vegetable juices
c. Much of the vitamin is lost due to heat and oxidation
d. Only about 10% of the amount in foods is bioavailable

Much of the vitamin is lost due to heat and oxidation

Which of the following is known to significantly affect the body's folate status?
a. Sedentary lifestyle
b. Some anticancer drugs
c. Excess protein intake
d. Insufficient fiber intake

some anticancer drugs

Physiological stresses such as blood loss, burns, measles, and cancer are known particularly to increase the risk of deficiency for

folate

Which of the following is associated with a deficiency of folate?
a. Hemolysis
b. Hypoxemia
c. Hemolytic anemia
d. Macrocytic anemia

Macrocytic anemia

Folate deficiency has been reported in infants fed
a. soy milk.
b. goat's milk.
c. chicken liver.
d. infant formula.

Goat's milk

Among all the vitamins, which is believed to be most vulnerable to interactions with drugs?

Folate

What is the RDA for folate for a woman weighing 132 pounds?

400 μg

What is the adult RDA for folate (µg)?

400

Which food group is highest in folate?

Vegetables (green and leafy)

Which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12?
a. Bile
b. Lipase
c. Intrinsic factor
d. Carboxypeptidase

Intrinsic factor

What is the function of intrinsic factor in vitamin B12 absorption?
a. It catalyzes release of the vitamin from its protein-bound form
b. It attaches to the vitamin, thereby allowing absorption from the intestines
c. It acts as a storage protein for the vitamin within the intestinal epithelial cells
d. It acts as a cofactor for mucosal enzymes involved in absorption of the vitamin

It attaches to the vitamin, thereby allowing absorption from the intestines

All of the following are required for efficient dietary absorption of vitamin B12 except
a. pepsin.
b. intrinsic factor.
c. hydrochloric acid.
d. mucosal cobalaminase.

Mucosal cobalaminase

What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency?

Inadequate absorption

Pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of

Vitamin B12

The nasal spray route represents a safe and efficacious means for the supply of

Vitamin B12

The absorption of which of the following vitamins is most affected by the disorder atrophic gastritis?

Vitamin B12

Which of the following is a property of vitamin B12?
a. It is efficiently recycled by the body
b. It is necessary for protection from pinpoint hemorrhages
c. It requires attachment to fatty acids for transport in the circulation
d. It is absorbed from the stomach with the aid of a special binding protein

It is efficiently recycled by the body

A similar type of anemia is produced when there is a deficiency of either
a. riboflavin or niacin.
b. vitamin B12 or folate.
c. thiamin or riboflavin.
d. vitamin B6 or vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12 or Folate

Which of the following is a common treatment for pernicious anemia caused by inadequate absorption?
a. Injection of cobalamin
b. Topical administration of liver extract
c. Oral supplements of B-vitamin complex
d. A diet high in liver and green, leafy vegetables

Injection of Cobalamin

If a person refrained from ingesting any of the water-soluble vitamins, deficiency symptoms would appear last for

Vitamin B12

Normally, the body's storage and re-utilization of vitamin B12 prevents a primary or secondary deficiency from occurring until after about

3 years

In a person who loses the ability to absorb vitamin B12, approximately what period of time could elapse before deficiency signs develop?

3 years

Pernicious anemia results from a combination of lack of intrinsic factor and

lack of hydrochloric acid

Which of the following is not known to be a risk factor for development of atrophic gastritis?
a. Age over 50 yrs
b. Iron deficiency
c. Helicobacter pylori infection
d. Avoidance of leafy vegetables

Avoidance of leafy vegetables

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin B12 bioavailability?
a. Synthetic B12 in supplement form is highly utilizable
b. Fermented soy products are optimal sources of the vitamin
c. Yeast consumed by vegans is a good source of the vitamin
d. Sea algae such as spirulina contain about 50% available vitamin B12

Synthetic B12 in supplement form is highly utilizable

Among the following water-soluble vitamins, a secondary deficiency would most likely be seen for
a. biotin.
b. thiamin.
c. vitamin C.
d. vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12

Why are vegetarians at risk of developing a vitamin B12 deficiency?
a. Vegetarian diets inhibit absorption of the vitamin
b. Vegetarian diets provide insufficient amounts of the vitamin
c. The fiber content of vegetarian diets causes decreased storage by the liver
d. The fiber content of vegetarian diets causes increased excretion of the vitamin

Vegetarian diets provide insufficient amounts of the vitamin

Of the following foods, which would be the only source of vitamin B12?
a. Pecans
b. Hot dog
c. Cauliflower
d. Whole-grain bread

Hot dog

Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin B12?
a. Toxicity symptoms are serious and irreversible
b. Units in food are expressed as cobalamin equivalents
c. It is inactivated when the food is heated in a microwave
d. Bioavailable amounts are found in fermented soy products

It is inactivated when the food is heated in a microwave

The RDA for Vitamin B12 is

2.4 micrograms

Which of the following vitamins has an RDA?
a. Biotin
b. Choline
c. Cobalamin
d. Pantothenic acid

Cobalamin

Which of the following is known to perform an essential function in the human body?
a. Carnitine
b. Orotic acid
c. Methoxantin
d. Pangamic acid

Carnitine

Which of the following is not known to be required in the diet of human beings?
a. Folic acid
b. Lipoic acid
c. Ascorbic acid
d. Pantothenic acid

Lipoic Acid

Which of the following is classified as a conditionally essential nutrient?
a. PABA
b. Choline
c. Inositol
d. Ubiquinone

Choline

Which of the following is probably required in the diet of human beings?
a. Choline
b. Inositol
c. Lipoic acid
d. Pangamic acid

Choline

Which of the following is not known to be a vitamin for human beings?
a. Cobalamin
b. Ubiquinone
c. Pyridoxine
d. Pantothenic acid

Ubiquinone

Which of the following is frequently affected by deficiencies of the B vitamins?
a. Bones
b. Tongue
c. Eyesight
d. Hair and nails

Tongue

Which of the following is an overt sign of a possible B vitamin deficiency?
a. Anemia
b. Smooth tongue
c. Abnormal liver function
d. Abnormal heart function

Smooth tongue

Which of the following characteristics is shared by vitamins B6, B12, C and folate?
a. Required for glycolysis
b. Consumption prevents anemia
c. Required in microgram quantities
d. Found in citrus products and legumes

Consumption prevents anemia

What is a free radical?

A molecule with at least one unpaired electron

Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C?
a. Antiviral agent
b. Antifungal agent
c. Anticancer agent
d. Antioxidant agent

Antioxidant

In what capacity does vitamin C function?
a. Coenzyme for energy release
b. Cofactor in collagen formation
c. Cofactor with calcium in blood coagulation
d. Coenzyme in the formation of red blood cells

Cofactor in collagen formation

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