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1. True or False: The principal job of the human nervous system is to facilitate communication among the body systems.

True

2. What is the basic unit of the nervous system?

the neuron.

3. What is the single long process that extends from a typical motor nerve cell?

axon

4. Within a single neuron, what is the direction an impulse follows?

dendrite >>> cell body >>> axon.

5. True or False: When an impulse passes from one neuron to the next, passes from axon to dendrite.

True

6. What are neuroglial cells and what do they do?

metabolically support other neurons, form sheaths around neurons and control the rate of impulse transmission, form more than half of the volume of the brain, provide physical support.

7. True or False: Functionally speaking, a nerve impulse is a series of changes in membrane potentials.

True

8. What is true of a neuron at rest?

there is a voltage difference across the membrane of about -70 millivolts, the interior is negatively charged, it is not responding to a stimulus, the fluid outside the membrane has more sodium and less potassium than the cytoplasm.

9. The membrane-bound enzyme system that restores and maintains the resting membrane potential is what pump?

sodium-potassium

10. At rest, a nerve cell has a high concentration of __________ inside and a high concentration of __________ outside.

potassium; sodium

11. True or False: Active transport helps to establish the resting potential of a neuron, counters the process of diffusion, and allows transport of atoms across the plasma membrane of the neuron against the concentration gradient.

True

12. What is the first response a neuron makes to a stimulus?

Sodium ions enter the cell.

13. True or False: For sodium to accumulate rapidly inside a neuron cell membrane, a stimulus above the threshold must open sodium gates in an accelerating manner.

Sodium ions enter the cell.

14. True or False: Disturbances in sensory neurons will result in an action potential if the graded stimulus reaches a trigger zone.

True

Put the following in order during an action potential?
a. Many sodium ions flow into the neuron.
b. Voltage-gated sodium channels open.
c. A local disturbance triggers the resting voltage to exceed the threshold level.
d. The interior of the neuron becomes positive.
e. The interior of the neuron becomes negative.

C, B, A, D, E

16. What phrase accurately describes the cellular activity associated with the actual passage of a nerve impulse?

wave of depolarization

17. True or False: An action potential is brought about by a local change in membrane permeability caused by a greater-than-threshold stimulus.

True

18. What happens during the passage of a nerve impulse?

sodium ions pass through gated channels, positive feedback causes more sodium ions to enter the cell, the interior of the cell becomes positive, changing voltage increases the number of open gates.

19. The phrase "all or nothing," used in conjunction with discussion about an action potential, means what?

nothing can stop the action potential once the threshold is reached.

20. What is the recovery time from the passage of a nerve impulse called?

refractory period.

21. What happens during the recovery period between action potentials?

the sodium gates are shut and the potassium gates are opened.

22. True or False: Transmitter substances are expelled from the presynaptic cells and interact with membrane receptors of the postsynaptic cells.

True

23. What is a junction between two neurons called?

chemical synapse

24. True or False: The operation of a synapse results from the passage of an electrical charge across the gap.

False

25. What bridges the gap between a sending and a receiving neuron?

transmitter substance

Transmitter substances
a. include acetylcholine.
b. change the permeability of postsynaptic cells.
c. may be excitatory or inhibitory.
d. may participate in synaptic integration.
e. all of these

...

27. True or False: Endorphins are neuromodulators and stimulators of brain and nervous activity.

...

28. True or False: At an inhibitory synapse a transmitter substance produces changes in the receiving cell that drive the membrane potential away from threshold.

...

29. What does synaptic integration mean?

...

30. Describe the myelin sheath of a nerve.

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31. What are the spaces that separate adjacent Schwann cells called?

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32. True or False: Saltatory ("jumping") conduction involves both a quicker type of nerve conduction and the movement of impulses from node to node.

...

33. A deterioration in the myelin sheaths of motor axons to the lower leg would be expected to cause what problems?

...

The simplest nerve pathway is
a. located in the midbrain.
b. the reflex pathway.
c. found in the lower part of the brain.
d. found in the autonomic nervous system.
e. in the flow of information from a sense receptor to the brain.

...

35. In the knee-jerk reflex arc, the synapse between a sensory neuron and a motor neuron occurs where?

...

36. True or False: One example of a simple reflex involves the conscious message to move part of the body.

...

The stretch reflex
a. is an adaptation that enables humans to stand upright.
b. is activated by stretch-sensitive receptors inside the muscle spindles.
c. is a simple, stereotyped, and repeatable motor action.
d. is elicited by a sensory stimulus.
e. all of these

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38. True or False: The pathway for a simple reaction to a stimulus is sense organ, motor neuron, sensory neuron, association neuron, effector.

...

39. Clusters of cell bodies of neurons outside the central nervous system are known as what?

...

Which of the following would NOT be a part of the central nervous system?
a. brain
b. cerebellum
c. medulla
d. spinal nerves
e. neuroglia cells

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41. By definition, a nerve is what?

...

42. True or False: All nerves that lead away from the central nervous system are efferent nerves.

...

43. True or False: The autonomic subdivision consists specifically of central and peripheral nerves.

...

The autonomic subdivision of the vertebrate nervous system would innervate all but which of the following?
a. intestinal muscles
b. skeletal muscles
c. heart
d. pancreas
e. liver

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45. Which nerves generally dominate internal events when environmental conditions elicit normal body functioning?

...

46. True or False: The sympathetic branch can have either excitatory or inhibitory effects depending on effects from the environment.

...

Signals from the parasympathetic nervous system cause which of the following?
a. rise in blood pressure
b. increase in pulse rate
c. increase in digestive system movements
d. rise in blood sugar level
e. rise in metabolic rate

...

48. True or False: Activation of the sympathetic nervous system causes the pupils of the eye to dilate.

...

49. What is the word that best describes the interaction of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems?

...

50. True or False: The part of the central nervous system that is composed of parts that are antagonistic to each other is the central nervous system composed of the brain and spinal cord.

...

51. Where are interneurons found?

...

52. Why do areas of the spinal cord appear glistening white?

...

53. What is the pituitary gland controlled by?

...

54. What is the center of consciousness and intelligence?

...

55. What is the part of the brain that deals with the basic drives such as hunger, sex, and thirst?

...

56. What is the major relay center of the brain?

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57. What is the center for balance and coordination?

...

58. What is the part of the brain that controls the basic responses necessary to maintain life processes (breathing, heartbeat)?

...

59. Destruction of the motor areas in the left cerebral cortex results in the loss of what?

...

60. Which part of the mammalian brain is disproportionately larger than the corresponding part of a fish brain?

...

61. What is the name given to the protective covering of the brain?

...

62. What are the chambers of the brain called?

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63. What is the gray matter of the brain associated with?

...

64. What does the blood-brain barrier consists of?

...

65. How do the cerebral hemispheres communicate with each other ?

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66. If the motor cortex on the right side of the brain is destroyed by a stroke, what would be impaired?

...

67. To produce a split-brain individual, an operation would need to cut what structure?

...

68. What is the left hemisphere of the brain responsible for?

...

69. What is the left hemisphere of the cerebrum specialized for?

...

70. Which lobe of the cerebrum is a processing center for hearing?

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71. Which lobe of the cerebrum processes conscious thought and decision making?

...

72. Emotional states are the responsibility of what part of the brain?

...

73. True or False: Studies of memory indicate that long-term memory depends on structural or chemical changes in the brain.

...

74. True or False: An EEG is an oscilloscope pattern showing an action potential of a nerve.

...

75. What is the sleep center of the brain?

...

Which two of the following both involve a progressive degeneration of the nervous system?
a. epilepsy and concussion
b. multiple sclerosis and meningitis
c. meningitis and encephalitis
d. Alzheimer's and encephalitis
e. Parkinson's and Alzheimer's

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77. Drug abuse usually involves those drugs which have what characteristics?

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78. What is the need for larger and more frequent doses of a drug called?

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79. True or False: In a synergistic drug interaction, one drug simply enhances the effects of the other.

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80. What is the stimulant in coffee, tea, and soft drinks?

...

81. Nicotine mimics what transmitter in its effects on the nervous system?

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82. How do amphetamines make persons who use them feel?

...

83. True or False: The interior of a neuron is positive.

...

84. True or False: Ganglia are part of the central nervous system.

...

85. True or False: Exocrine glands are innervated by the autonomic nervous system.

...

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