Biology I - Chapter 3A - Basic Structures of Cells

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For Biology I students at Christian Life School

Cytology

The study of cells

cyto-

cell

-logy

study of

Hooke

First to view and draw cork cells; responsible for naming the cell

van Leewenhoek

First to view living cells while looking at pond water and scrapings from his teeth

Schleiden

Figured out that plants were made of cells

Schwann

Discovered that animals were made of cells

Virchow

First observed cells dividing and discovered that all cells come from other pre-existing cells

3 parts of the Cell Theory

1. All living things are made of cells.
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
3. Cells come from the reproduction of existing cells.

Unicellular

Containing one cell

Multicellular

Made of many cells

-cellular

cell(ed)

multi-

many

Specialize

Take on a different shape and function

Tissues

Groups of similar cells that work together to carry out a specific function.

Organs

Groups of tissues working together to perform specific functions

Organ system

Groups of organs working together to accomplish life functions

Organism

Made up of many organ systems working together

Prokaryote

Cell that lacks a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles

Eukaryote

Cell that has a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles

3 Basic Parts of Eukaryotic Cells

Nucleus
Cell membrane
Cytoplasm

Organelles

Microscopic structures that perform various functions

Cell membrane

Controls what enters and leaves the cell

Cellulose

Makes up the cell wall of a plant.

Peptidoglycan

Makes up the cell wall of a bacteria

Chitin

Makes up the cell wall of fungi

Cell wall

Rigid outside covering that supports and protects the cell

Cytoplasm

Jelly-like (watery) substance that is enclosed by the cell membrane and contains all the organelles

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell that creates cell energy

Cristae

The inner membrane of the mitochondria that increases surface area for chemical reactions

Ribosomes

Function as the protein factories and are made up of lots of RNA

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum; a network of hollow membrane tubules that make and transport cell products

2 Types of ER

Smooth
Rough

Golgi body

Stacks of flattened sacs that function to package, sort, process, and send out compounds in the cell

Lysosome

Contains digestive enzymes that break down food, bacteria, and worn out cell parts

Cytoskeleton

Internal cell structures that help the cell maintain its shape and help organelles move around

Cilia

Short, hairlike extensions that move small particles away from the cell surface

Flagella

Long, hairlike extensions that help certain cells move

Chloroplast

Colored structures that are used for storage and are the site for photosynthesis

Chlorophyll

Pigment that uses energy from the sun to help the plant make its own food

chloro-

green

-phyll

leaf

Thylakoids

Sacs on the inside of a chloroplast

Grana

Stacks of thylakoids

Stroma

The area surrounding the thylakoids

Vacuoles

Fluid-filled sacs for storage of food, water, and wastes

Centrioles

Bundles of microtubules that appear during cell division to form the spindle

Nucleus

Control center of the cell

Nuclear membrane

Covering of the nucleus

Nuclear pores

Openings in the nuclear membrane that allow for materials to enter and leave the nucleus

Chromatin

Mass of spread out DNA

Nucleolus

Functions to make ribosomes

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