5th Grade-Chapter 7 Water on Earth

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hydrosphere

all the waters of earth

3/4

The hydrosphere covers _________ of Earth's surface.

ocean

Almost all of the hydrosphere is __________ water.

Pacific Ocean

the largest and deepest ocean

salinity

measure of how salty the water is

lower

When rivers meet oceans, the salinity is ___________ than warmer ocean water.

table salt

Sodium chloride is known as ___________.

winds & cold, salty water sinking under warmer water

2 causes of ocean currents

rivers

Oceans get salt from ___________.

warmer

Ocean water near the equator is ____________ than water near the poles.

tuna, salt, magnesium, drinking water

4 examples of ocean resources

rain or snow

Almost all of Earth's fresh water starts as ___________.

groundwater

rain or melted snow that soaks into the ground

aquifer

layer of rock and soil that groundwater occupies

water table

top level of groundwater in an aquifer

watershed

area from which water drains into a river

reservoir

artifical lake that forms behind a dam

Antarctica & Greenland

2 locations of much of Earth's ice

glaciers & ice sheets

form when each year's snowfall is greater than the amount that melts

iceberg

large piece of floating ice broken off a glacier

chlorine & flouride

2 chemicals added to drinking water

water vapor

water as an invisible gas

decreases

Air pressure __________ as you move higher in the atmosphere.

water cycle

repeated movement of water through the enviroment in different forms

evaporation

liquid water changes to water vapor

condensation

water vapor changes to liquid water

precipitation

water falls from clouds as rain, snow, sleet or hail

dew

Condensation forms __________.

sublimation

ice changing into water vapor without first melting

frost

ice crystals formed by frozen water vapor

when plants make sugar during photosynthesis & during respiration

2 examples of water made by living things

clouds

form when water vapor changes into tiny water droplets or ice crystals

temperature & air pressure

factors that determine if a cloud is made of water droplets or ice crystals

cirrus cloud

thin, wispy, high altitude cloud

thunderhead

vertical cloud that causes thunderstorms

altocumulus cloud

mid-altitude cloud that look like small, puffy balls

stratus cloud

low-altitude cloud that covers the whole sky

fog

cloud at ground level

sleet

frozen raindrops

hail

form when strong winds blow raindrops back into the freezing air of a cloud

snow

precipitation when ice crystals fall

freezing rain

when rainwater freezes as it lands

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