Accounting Rate of Return on Investment
Adjusting cash flows produced, Calculation of the rate of return on an investment by adjusting cash inflows produced by the investment for depreciation. Approximates the accounting income earned by the investment.
h, The process of analyzing and selecting various proposals for capital expenditures.
In the context of implementation, the individual acting as the catalyst during the change process to ensure successful organizational adaptation to a new system or innovation.
Managing the impact of organizational change associated with an innovation, such as a new information system.
A deliberate strategy to thwart the implementation of an information system or an innovation in an organization.
Critical Success Factors
A small number of easily identifiable operational goals shaped by the industry, the firm, the manager, and the broader environment that are believed to assure the success of an organization. Used to determine the information requirements of an organization.
An analysis of organization-wide information requirements by looking at the entire organization in terms or organizational units, functions, processes, and data elements; helps identify the key entities and attributes in the organization's data.
The interaction of people and machines in the work environment, including the design of jobs, health issues, and the end user interface of information systems.
External Integration Tools
Project management technique that links the work of the implementation team to that of users at all organization levels.
Formal Control Tools
Project management technique that helps monitor the progress towards completion of a task and fulfillment of goals
Formal Planning Tools
Project management technique that structures and sequences tasks, budgeting time, money, and technical resources required to complete the tasks.
(1) Simon's final stage of decision making, when the individual puts the decision into effect and reports on the progress of the solution (2) The stage in the systems development life cycle when a system is put into production mode.
Information Resource Management
The process of managing information systems including hardware, software, data and databases, telecommunications, people, and the facilities that house these IS components -- as an asset or resource that is critical to the organization.
This plan serves as a road map indicating the direction of systems development, rationale, current/system situation, new developments, the management strategy, the implementation plan, and the budget
Benefits that are not easily quantified; they include more efficient customer service or enhanced decision making.
Internal Integration Tools
Project management technique that ensures that the implementation team operates as a cohesive unit.
MIS Steering Committee
The group of top managers who oversee the MIS function, focusing primarily on policy, planning, and budgeting, and on prioritizing projects
The amount of money an investment is worth, taking into account its cost, earnings, and the time value of money
Organizational Impact Analysis
Study of the way a proposed system will affect organizational structure, attitudes, decision making, and operations.
An analysis of the portfolio of potential applications within a firm to determine the risks and benefits, and to select among alternatives for information systems.
The value, in current dollars, of a payment or stream of payments to be received in the future
the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project
Real Options Pricing Models
Models for evaluating information technology investments with uncertain returns by using techniques for valuing financial options.
A quick method for deciding among alternative systems based on a system of ratings for selected objectives.
Design to produce information systems that blend technical efficiency with sensitivity to organizational and human needs.
IS staff who actually operate computers hands-on for tasks such as keeping systems running, changing paper on massive, high speed printers, and loading hard drives
Benefits that can be quantifies and assigned a monetary value; they include lower operational costs and increased cash flows.
User-Designer Communication Gap
Users and specialists have different backgrounds, interests, and priorities
The par of the information system through which the end user interacts with the system; type of hardware and the series of on-screeen commands and responses required for a user to work with the system