French Revolution and Napoleon

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Louis XVI

- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.

Marie Antoinette

queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular

Olympe de gouges

A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas.

Georges Danton

French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris Bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror (1759-1794)

Jean Paul Marat

French revolutionary leader (born in Switzerland) who was a leader in overthrowing the Girondists and was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday (1743-1793)

Maximilien Robespierre

Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror.

Napoleon Bonaparte

French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)

Klemens Con Metternich

haughty Austrian foreign Minister and Prince was the most influential leader at the meeting in Vienna; claimed that the principle of legitimacy guided him

Old Regime

The Political and Social system that existed in France before the French Revolution

First Estate

The first class of French society made up of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church.

Second Estate

The second class of French society made up of the noblility

Third Estate

Largest of the Three Estates, made up of Bourgeoisie, Peasants, and Urban Workers. Had the least money and power but paid the virtually all of the taxes.

Bourgeoisie

educated, middle class of France; provided force behind the Revolution, In early modern Europe, the class of well-off town dwellers whose wealth came from manufacturing, finance, commerce, and allied professions.

Urban Workers

They were the rural poor; they worked in small output factories, servants, and cooks., their main concern was food and the high price of bread (they just wanted social order equality, they didn't care about politics), The poorest members of the third estate were

Peasantry

Rural peoples, usually on the lowest rung of society's ladder, who provide urban inhabitants with farm products but have little access to wealth or political power.

Estates General

France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.

Versailles

Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.

National Assembly

French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.

Tennis Court Oath

A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution

Bastille

a jail (literally, a French jail)

Great Fear

A wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789

Emigres

French nobility who fled country to escape the Revolution

Legislative Assembly

replaced National Assembly; took away most of king's power, a French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791.

Radical

Mainly the sans-culottes; the people who thought there wasn't enough change and wanted more of it even after the storming of the Bastille

Sans-culottes

in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages, A reference to Parisian workers who wore loose-fitting trousers rather than the tight-fitting breeches worn by aristocratic men.

The Commune

gov't after the storming of Bastille

Suffrage

the right to vote

National Convention

France becomes a Republic, Execution of Louis XVI

Guillotine

instrument of execution that consists of a weighted blade between two vertical poles

Jacobins

Very RADICAL French revolutionary party responsible for Reign of Terror and execution of king

Girondists

A group of moderates. Felt that the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to protect the wealthy middle class from radical attacks. Organized support to resist strength against the mountain

The Committee of Public Safety

The National Convention formed the Committee of Public Safety and gave it dictatorial power to deal with the crisis affecting France, primarily the economic struggles for the sans-culottes. Robespierre lead them, executed people, and was executed himself along with his followers

Republic

a government in which citizens rule through elected representatives

Reign of Terror

This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed

Directory

Group of five men who served as liaisons between Robespierre and the Assembly. Overthrown by Napoleon.

Nationalism

love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it

Consulate

Form of government which followed the directory -established by Napoleon-ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.

Coup D' Etat

A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group

Concordat

Agreement between Pope and Napoleon: Napoleon recognized Catholocism as the religion of the majority of France, Pope does not ask for any land back seized during the Revolution

Napoleonic Code

This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy; restricted women's rights

Continental System

Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.

The Peninsula War

war between France and Spain/Portugal (aided by the British); rebelled against France and fought with guerilla warfare. resulted in the defeat of France and their expulsion from Spain and Portugal

Scorched Earth Policy

Burning live stock and crops to prevent the enemy from living off the land

Quadruple Alliance

G.B., Austria, Prussia, and Russia united to defeat France and their Bonapartism, and also to ensure peace after war. After Napoleon, they resotred the Bourbon monarchy to France.

Battle of Waterloo

the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat

St. Helena

place of napoleons second/last exile and death, Where Napoleon was exiled until the end of his life. 1815,1821 Revolution comes to an inglorious end.

Elba

This island in the Mediterranean Sea off of Italy where Napoleon was initially exiled after he abdicated the throne for the first time. He promised to never leave, but does so and regains power in France for a short period called the Hundred Days

Legitimacy

Principle by which monarchies that had been unseated by the French Revolution or Napoleon were restored

Holy Alliance

Alliance among RUssia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of religion and the established order; formed at Congress of Vienna by most conservative monarchies of Europe.

Concert of Europe

a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions

Constitution of 1791

all 3 estates have equal power in government, National Assembly becomes Legasliative Assembly, absolute monarchy is abolished, forcing the king to obey

Constitution of 1795

Constitution created by the French Revolution that had no monarchy and an executive called the Directory

Declaration of the Rights of Man

Written by the National Convention -declared all men could do anything as long as it did not harm others.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

rule saying that the clergy will be elected and salaried (1770)

Napoleonic Code

A comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon

Problems of France pre-revolutionary

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What political groups emerged during the Legislative Assembly

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What elements were included in the Constitution of 1791

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What were the foreign threats France faced during the Revolution

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Reign of Terror

a period during the French Revolution in which the Robespierre-led government executed thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens that did not or were believed not to support the Revolution

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How did the Congress of Vienna insure peace in Europe

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How did France and the Catholic Church get along during this period

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