Geography Exam 3 (exam questions)

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The sandblasting action of wind-blown particles is called

Abrasion

a desert pavement surface is associated with which of the following types of desert

reg

a characteristic cone-shaped depositional feature in the desert that usually forms at the mouth of a canyon is known as a(n)

alluvial fan

rocks that appear pitted and grooved, and sometimes polished smooth by eolian processes, are termed

ventifacts

the removal and lifting of individual loose particles by the wind is termed

deflation

stream-related processes are termed

fluvial

which of the following grain sizes is most readily moved by the wind?

intermediate

regular patterns of smooth, rounded waves are called

swells

the term eolian refers to

erosion, transportation, and deposition by the wind

the general term for clay. silt, and sand deposited by running water is

alluvium

the undulating form that gives earth's surface its character and general configuration is called

topography

pulverized rock and clastic materials ejected violently during an eruption are called

tephra, or pyroclastics

which of the following supports the continental drift concept

all of the above support the theory

orogenesis refers to

a general term for a mountain building episode that thickens continental crust

drainage density refers to

a measure determined by dividing the length of all the channels by the area of its drainage basin

maximum velocity in a stream is found

at the center and near the surface, corresponding with the deepest parts of the stream channel

a common crescent-shaped dune with horns pointed downwind is called a

barchan dune

terranes refer to

displaced and migrating pieces of earth's crust

what type of rock forms from the solidification of molten material

igneous

vertical elevation differences in a local landscape are referred to as

relief

a cutoff on a meandering stream results in the formation of

an oxbow lake

near the shore, waves of transition begin to "feel bottom" and, as a result, the orbits of the water molecules in the wave become more _________ . this process eventually causes __________ to form

elliptical; breakers

which of the following is an exogenic process

weathering

after water itself, what are the primary elements which occur in sea water

chlorine and sodium

wave action works to straighten a coast as a wave energy focuses around headlands and tends to disperse energy in coves and bays in a process called

wave refraction

which of the following is correct regarding loess deposits

they are formed of fine-grained clays and silts

coral bleaching refers to

the loss of algae from the coral

which of the following is an example of a first order of relief

an ocean basin

coral formations

are made of animals living symbiotically with simple algae

particles of sand, gravels, and shells that move along the shore form the

beach drift

which of the following is incorrectly matched

shearing -- stretching or faulting

an exotic stream is

any river that arises in a humid region and then passes through to an arid region

given present global warming trends and predicted climate change for the next century, sea level is estimated to rise

between .18 -- .59 m (7.1 -- 23.2 in)

the belief that disasters have produced most of the major features of earth is called

catastrophism

stream transport involves all of the following except

sheet flow

uniformitarianism assumes that

the same physical processes we see today are key to understanding the processes that have been operating throughout geologic time

an interruption in a stream's graded profile of equilibrium is called a

nickpoint

an extensive area of sand and sand dunes is known as a(n)

Erg desert, or sand sea

which of the following is an endogenic process

volcanism

at which of the following locations is new ocean crust being formed

oceanic rift zones

the state of georgia is principally within which major drainage basin

south atlantic-gulf

which of the following is correct regarding worldwide sea level

it was about 130 m lower 18,000 B.P., and about 10-20 cm lower 100 years ago or so

the area at the surface directly above the subsurface location where seismic waves are initiated is termed the

epicenter

natural levees are created during

floods

consider the equation Q=wdy. according to the equation, if Q (discharge) remains constant, but w and d decrease (as when a channel becomes more narrow and shallow), the velocity will

increase

a rock transformed from any other rock through extreme heat and or pressure is referred to as

metamorphic

limestone is a type of _____ rock that forms when ______

sedimentary; calcium carbonate precipitates, or organic material containing calcium carbonate accumulated in a water environment

composite cones have steep slopes and experience ______ eruptions because they are composed of ______ magma

violent; felsic

continental crust is basically _______, whereas oceanic crust is basically _______

granite; basalt

elongated, streamlined ridges aligned parallel to the most effective wind direction are called

yardangs

water can be considered a "universal" solvent

true

limestone is lithified metamorphic rock, high in magnesium, whereas marble is a sedimentary form

false

water is a more effective agent of erosion in deserts than wind

true

rivers have played a relatively minor role in the geography of human history

false

the appalachians are older than the rockies

true

erosion of the walls of a channel normally occurs on the outside curve of a meander

true

the alps and alpine complex in europe are an example of a third order relief

false

continental shields, or cratons, are generally of low elevation and old in age

true

earthquake and volcanic occurrences do not correlate well with crustal plate boundaries

false

as the potential evapotranspiration increases, salinity decreases

false

a single groin can produce both sand erosion and deposition

true

the atacama desert is one of the world's driest regions and is located on the southwest coast of africa

false

a major drainage basin consists of a single watershed

false

barrier islands are stable islands that are suitable for development

false

the suspended load of a stream is the coarser materials that are dragged along the stream bed

false

desert pavement refers to

surfaces of concentrated pebbles and gravels

a hypsographic curve is

a generalized curve showing earths surface by area and elevation in relation to sea level

on the desert floor, at locally low elevations, an intermittently wet and dry flat area in a region of closed (interior) drainage is called a(n)

playa

when people go swimming along a coast, they often find themselves, after a while, down the coast from where they first entered the water. they moved downshore because of

longshore currents

which side of a dune typically has a slope angle equal to that of the angle of repose for sand?

leeward

which of the following is correct regarding continental drift?

the term "continental drift" is now called plate tectonics

the greatest flow from rivers east of the continental divide in the rockies is into the

Gulf/Atlantic drainage

sand that extends from a coast into open water is called a

barrier spit

when geologists or archaeologists dig downward into a unit of rock or sediment, they are digging "back in time". this fact is based on the principle of

superposition

the largest material that can be carried by a stream is carried as

bed load

the littoral zone extends inland to

the highest water line that occurs during a storm

which of the following gives the correct sequence of layers in earth, from surface to the center?

crust, asthenosphere, lower mantle, core

in which region of the US are eolian processes most effective

southwest

an instrument used to record vibrations in the crust is the

seismograph

the total possible load a stream can transport is its ________, whereas a stream's ability to move particles of specific size is its ___________.

capacity; competence

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