Which of the following is not among the features of the fat-soluble vitamins?
a. Require bile for absorption
b. Found in the fat and oily parts of foods
c. Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue
d. Pose a greater risk for developing a toxicity than water-soluble vitamins
Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue
What is the main carrier of the fat soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation?
Which of the following is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins?
a. Most of them are synthesized by intestinal bacteria
b. Intestinal transport occurs by way of the portal circulation
c. Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet
d. Toxicity risk is higher for vitamins E and K than for other fat-soluble vitamins
Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet
If the diet contains precursor Vitamin A, which tissues can use it to form Vitamin A?
Which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body?
All of the following are forms of vitamin A except
c. retinoic acid.
Which of the following is responsible for transporting vitamin A from the liver to other tissues?
c. Retinol-binding protein
d. Transcarotenoid protein
As far as is known, vitamin A does not play an important role in which of the following processes?
a. Blood clotting
b. Growth of bones and teeth
c. Synthesis of visual pigment
d. Maintaining mucous membranes
What are the known effects of raising animals on diets containing retinoic acid as the only source of vitamin A?
Which of the following describes an association of vitamin A and vision?
a. Retinoic acid is the form required for synthesis of retinoblasts
b. Light causes retinal to shift from a cis to a trans configuration
c. Retinol is the form bound to beta-carotene in the corneal membrane
d. Pigment molecules in the retina are composed of a molecule of vitamin A bound to an omega-3 fatty acid
Light causes retinal to shift from a cis to a trans configuration
Which of the following describes an event in the visual response process?
a. Light energy strikes the retina and excites pigments to release retinal
b. Light energy strikes the cornea and excites pigments to release retinoic acid
c. Visual pigments deep in the brain are excited by light transmitted through the retina
d. Epithelial cells on the surface of the eye respond to light energy by transmitting opsin molecules along nerve pathways to the brain
Light energy strikes the retina and excites pigments to release retinal
What tissue contains the majority of the body's store of vitamin A?
c. Retinal cells
d. Intestinal mucosal cells
Which of the following describes the primary function of vitamin A in bone health?
a. It stimulates uptake of calcium from the intestines
b. It promotes synthesis of specific bone proteins involved in the mineralization process
c. It assists enzymes that degrade certain regions of the bone thereby allowing remodeling to occur
d. It inhibits oxidation of bone mucopolysaccharides thereby preserving bone crystal integrity and promoting growth
It assists enzymes that degrade certain regions of the bone thereby allowing remodeling to occur
Greg says that he usually eats 1 medium carrot every day to ensure that he's consuming enough vitamin A. Today he said he didn't eat any carrots and is worried that there is not enough vitamin A in his system. What would you say to Greg to allay his fear?
a. "Take a vitamin A supplement as soon as you can!"
b. "As long as you eat some chicken tonight you will not develop chicken eyes."
c. "Well, there isn't any vitamin A in carrots so you probably haven't consumed vitamin A for some time now."
d. "Don't worry; fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body. It takes a lot longer than one day to develop any adverse effects."
Don't worry, fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body. It takes a lot longer than one day to develop any adverse affects
If a normal, healthy adult were to begin consuming a vitamin A-poor diet, approximately how much time would pass before the first deficiency symptoms would appear?
Why does vitamin A status depend on the person's protein status?
a. Adequate protein intake is a marker for liberal intake of the vitamin
b. Dietary protein assures synthesis of the vitamin's GI tract transporter
c. Adequate protein intake reduces the risk for infection from bacteria that degrade the vitamin
d. Transport of the vitamin within the body requires sufficient protein to synthesize retinol-binding protein
Transport of the vitamin within the body requires sufficient protein to synthesize retinol binding protein
Studies in developing countries have demonstrated that the mortality rate of children with measles can be significantly reduced by providing supplements of
Vitamin A supplements are helpful in treating which of the following conditions?
d. Night blindness
The effects of vitamin A deficiency are most severe in what population group?
Which of the following is most likely to occur from a prolonged dietary deficiency of vitamin A?
d. Prolonged blood-clotting time
Which of the following features are shared by Retin-A and Accutane?
They have chemical structures similar to Vitamin A
What population group is most vulnerable to vitamin A toxicity?
Which of the following is a feature of taking high-dose supplements of vitamin A?
a. They increase teratogenic risk
b. They are effective in treating acne
c. They lead to keratinization of tissue
d. They reduce risk for neural tube defects
They increase teratogenic risk
Which of the following is a feature of Accutane?
a. It is effective in treating rickets
b. It is less toxic than pure vitamin A
c. It is known to be effective in treating mild but not severe acne
d. It is known to cause birth defects when used by pregnant women
It is known to cause birth defects when used by pregnant women
All of the following are characteristics of excess consumption of beta-carotene except
a. overconsumption from foods is harmless.
b. overconsumption from supplements is harmless.
c. drinking alcohol worsens the adverse effects of supplements.
d. smoking cigarettes aggravates the detrimental effects of supplements.
Overconsumption from supplements is harmless
Which of the following is the most likely side effect for a person who regularly consumes large quantities of carrots or carrot juice?
Why shouldn't a 7-month pregnant woman be prescribed Accutane?
It's a teratogen and could be harmful to the baby
n which of the following individuals would vitamin A toxicity be most likely to occur?
a. Adolescent women
b. Overweight adults
c. Those taking vitamin A supplements
d. Those consuming more than 100 g of carrots daily
Those taking vitamin A supplements
To decrease risk for vitamin A toxicity-related birth defects, it is suggested that pregnant women limit vitamin A supplements to less than
a. 5,000 RAE.
b. 10,000 RAE.
c. 4 times the RDA.
d. 10 times the RDA.
4 times the RDA
Which of the following is likely to induce vitamin A toxicity in adults?
a. Eating beef liver once a month
b. Consuming high-dose vitamin A supplements
c. Drinking 2 quarts of vitamin A-fortified milk daily
d. Consuming large amounts of dark green and deep orange vegetables
Consuming high dose vitamin A supplements
Which of the following is a characteristic of carotenoids in foods?
a. Most carotenoids can be converted to vitamin A
b. The carotenoid with the highest conversion rate to vitamin A is lycopene
c. Carotenoid absorption efficiency from salads is higher when regular dressing is used compared with low-fat dressing
d. Carotenoid absorption is inhibited by foods rich in chlorophyll
Carotenoid absorption efficiency from salads is higher when regular dressing is used compared with low-fat dressing
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin A in foods?
a. Anthocyanin in beets masks the presence of beta-carotene
b. Margarine made from corn oil is a poor source of vitamin A
c. Most carotenoids can be converted in the body to active vitamin A
d. Chlorophyll in dark green leafy vegetables masks the presence of beta-carotene
Chlorophyll in dark leafy green vegetables masks the presence of beta-carotene
Which of the following is a feature of carotenoids in food?
a. Most carotenoids have vitamin A activity
b. Bioavailability depends in part on the presence of preformed vitamin A
c. Absorption from the GI tract is blunted by consuming a salad with fat-free dressing
d. Bioavailability is highest for alpha-carotene but this form is present in least amounts in the diet
Absorption from the GI tract is blunted by consuming a salad with fat free dressing
Your sister Ellen has just joined the Peace Corps and will be working on ways to improve the nutritional status of children in Indonesia. Once there, she saw that many of the children and some adults suffer from night blindness. Which of the following foods should she recommend be incorporated into the Indonesian diet to help prevent future generations from developing this condition?
a. Sweet potato
b. Orange juice
c. Peanut butter
d. Powdered skim milk
A person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select all of the following except
d. sweet potatoes.
Which of the following foods is a very good source of vitamin A?
b. Pumpkin pie
c. Baked potato
d. Whole-grain bread
Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin A in foods?
a. Fast foods are generally considered good sources of vitamin A
b. A regular intake of chicken liver is known to induce toxicity in children
c. Xanthophylls in certain vegetables can be converted to active vitamin A in the liver
d. Chlorophyll in vegetables can be converted to active vitamin A in the intestinal cells
A regular intake of chicken liver is known to induce toxicity in children
Which of the following provides the least amount of precursor vitamin A?
All of the following organs are required for the complete synthesis of activated vitamin D except the: skin, liver, kidney, intestines
Which of the following shows the highest vitamin D activity?
c. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D
d. 1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D
1,25- Dihydroxy vitamin D
Which of the following compounds serves as the major precursor for the body's synthesis of vitamin D?
d. Eicosapentanoic acid
Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D?
d. Exposure to sunlight
Exposure to sunlight
In what tissue(s) must a molecule of vitamin D be chemically altered to yield a compound that is fully active?
a. Liver only
b. Kidney only
c. Liver and kidney
d. Liver and intestines
Liver and Kidney
All of the following are other names for vitamin D except
d. dihydroxy vitamin D.
Which of the following compounds is known to function as a hormone?
a. Vitamin D
b. Vitamin K
The major target organs for the action of activated vitamin D include all of the following except the
What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D?
Promote calcium and phosphorous absorption and promotes calcium mobilization
What is the name of the vitamin D-deficiency disease in adults?
Which of the following symptoms would indicate a vitamin D deficiency?
a. Bowed legs
b. Rupture of red blood cells
c. Frequent respiratory infections
d. Abnormally high blood calcium level
Which of the following conditions or diseases are known to be caused by a deficiency of the same nutrient?
a. Osteomalacia and rickets
b. Xerophthalmia and breath pentane release
c. Kwashiorkor and fibrocystic breast disease
d. Hemolytic anemia and large-cell type anemia
Osteomalacia and rickets
Which of the following is not a feature of vitamin D deficiency?
a. It causes a calcium deficiency
b. It causes excess iron absorption
c. It leads to overt signs only rarely
d. It leads to low blood calcium which in turn promotes seizures
It causes excess iron absorption
All of the following are characteristics of vitamin D nutrition except
a. deficient intake may lead to altered bone composition.
b. excessive intake may lead to mineral deposits in the kidneys.
c. fortified milk is the major dietary source in the U.S. population.
d. the requirement is increased in most people who are exposed to the sun.
the requirement is increased in most people who are exposed to the sun.
Which of the following is not known to promote vitamin D deficiency in the elderly?
a. Consumption of little or no milk
b. Excessive use of hypertension medications
c. Wearing protective clothing and using sunscreen while outdoors
d. Diminished capacity of liver and kidney synthesis of activated vitamin D
Excessive use of hypertension medications
The risk for vitamin D deficiency increases with advancing age for all of the following reasons except reduced
a. exposure to sunlight.
b. milk intake of older people.
c. absorption of dietary vitamin D.
d. activation of vitamin D by the kidneys.
Absorption of dietary vitamin D
Which of the following may result from excessive intakes of vitamin D by adults?
a. Increased bone density
b. Increased bone calcification
c. Deformity of leg bones, ribs, and skull
d. Mineral deposits in soft tissues such as the kidney
Mineral deposits in soft tissues such as the kidney
Your old friend from high school has just moved to Northern Canada to do full-time research on bats in caves. She typically works in the caves during the day when the bats are there and leaves at sundown when the bats are active. Since your friend only purchases organic and all natural foods, which of the following would you most likely advise she buy regularly at the grocery store?
a. Whole-grain bread
b. Vitamin D-fortified milk
c. Vitamin A-fortified carrot juice
d. Omega-3 fatty acid-fortified milk
Vitamin D fortified milk
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D?
a. The bioavailability of vitamin D from soy milk is low
b. Lifeguards on southern beaches have increased risk for vitamin D toxicity
c. Most adults living in the southern United States need small amounts of dietary vitamin D
d. The average consumption in the United States does not meet the recommended intake
The average consumption in the united states does not meet the recommended intake
Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin D nutrition?
a. Vitamin D deficiency may be created by a calcium deficiency
b. Only about one-half of the world's population relies on sunlight to maintain adequate vitamin D nutrition
c. Prolonged exposure to sunlight degrades the vitamin D precursor in skin, thus preventing vitamin D toxicity
d. In people living in northern U.S. cities, vitamin D stores from synthesis during the summer are usually sufficient to meet the needs during the winter
Prolonged exposure to sunlight degrades the vitamin D precursor in skin, thus preventing vitamin D toxicity
Which of the following enables much of the world's population to maintain adequate vitamin D status?
a. Outdoor exposure of the skin to sunlight
b. Wide availability of low-cost fish products
c. Wide availability of food assistance programs
d. World Health Organization distribution of vitamin D capsules
Outdoor exposure of the skin to sunlight
Which of the following conditions is known to lead to formation of mineral deposits in the blood vessels and kidney?
a. Excessive intake of vitamin D
b. Inadequate intake of vitamin D
c. Excessive intake of tocopherols
d. Inadequate intake of tocopherols
Excessive intake of Vitamin D
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D?
a. Toxicity from vitamin D may result from overexposure to the sun
b. Requirements are much higher in the elderly due to degenerative bone diseases
c. Fortification of milk with the vitamin is common in order to provide people with a reliable source
d. Absorption from most food sources is very poor, necessitating the enrichment of grain products
Fortification of milk with the Vitamin is common in order to provide people with a reliable source
Which of the following is the most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet?
b. Fortified milk
c. Fruits and vegetables
d. Enriched breads and cereals
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D synthesis?
a. Tanning lamps and tanning booths do not stimulate vitamin D synthesis
b. Sunscreens with sunburn protection factors of 2 and above prevent synthesis of vitamin D
c. The ultraviolet rays of the sun are able to easily pierce heavy clouds and smog to promote vitamin D synthesis
d. Dark-skinned people require longer sunlight exposure than light-skinned people to synthesize equivalent amounts of vitamin D
Dark skinned people require longer sunlight exposure than light skinned people to synthesize equivalent amounts of vitamin D
Which of the following is a naturally occurring food source of vitamin D?
a. Egg yolks
b. Red meats
c. Tomato juice
d. Whole-wheat bread
Which of the following is not a feature of vitamin D nutrition?
a. A dietary source is oily fish
b. The DRI fails to account for skin synthesis of vitamin D
c. Excessive exposure to the sun increases risk for vitamin D toxicity
d. People who are not outdoors are advised to drink at least 2 cups of vitamin D-fortified milk daily
Excessive exposure to the sun increases risk for vitamin D toxicity
What is the Adequate Intake level for vitamin D in individuals around 20 years of age?
a. 5 μg
b. 8 μg
c. 10 μg
d. 14 μg
Recently, there has been a lot of news about the importance of antioxidants in the diet. Which vitamin has been noted as preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins?
Which of the following features do vitamins C and E share?
a. Both function as antioxidants
b. Both require bile for absorption
c. Neither participates in protein synthesis
d. Neither is affected by the processing of foods
Both function as antioxidants
How is vitamin E thought to play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease?
It slows oxidation of low density lipoproteins
The major function of vitamin E is to inhibit the destruction of
b. free radicals.
d. polyunsaturated fatty acids.
polyunsaturated fatty acids
The process of bone remodeling is known to be dependent on all of the fat-soluble vitamins except
Which of the following disorders may result from vitamin E deficiency in people?
c. Muscular dystrophy
d. Erythrocyte hemolysis
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E?
a. Functions as a hormone-like substance
b. Toxicity symptoms include bone abnormalities
c. Deficiencies occur from inability to absorb dietary lipids
d. Important food sources include enriched breads and pasta
Deficiencies occur from inability to absorb dietary lipids
There is some evidence for benefits from vitamin E supplements in all of the following groups except
a. premature infants.
b. people with intermittent claudication.
c. women with fibrocystic breast disease.
d. people with problems of sexual impotence.
People with problems of sexual impotence
Which of the following conditions may improve with vitamin E therapy?
b. Pernicious anemia
c. Muscular dystrophy
d. Intermittent claudication
Which of the following is a property of the tocopherols?
a. Easily destroyed by air and oxygen
b. Act as precursors for the menaquinones
c. May dissolve from foods into cooking water
d. Absorbed from the intestines into the portal circulation
Easily destroyed by air and oxygen
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E in foods?
a. Vitamin E is fairly stable to heat
b. Most convenience foods are poor sources of vitamin E
c. Saturated oils are the major dietary sources of vitamin E
d. The amount of alpha-tocopherol in foods is underestimated
Most convenience foods are poor sources of Vitamin E
Which of the following are major sources of vitamin E in the diet?
b. Citrus fruits
c. Vegetable oils
d. Milk and dairy products
Among the following, which contains the highest concentration of vitamin E?
c. Milk fat
d. Corn oil
In comparison with the RDA for vitamin E, about how many fold higher is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level?
Which of the following is characteristic of the tocopherols?
a. Good food sources include lean meats and dairy
b. The various tocopherols perform similar roles in the body
c. They are usually found in foods high in polyunsaturated fats
d. The various tocopherol compounds can be converted to the active alpha-tocopherol
They are usually found in foods high in polyunsaturated fats
Which of the following properties do vitamins D and K share?
a. Both are synthesized in the body
b. Both are required for normal vision
c. Neither has an effect on bone metabolism
d. Neither has an effect on erythrocyte function
Both are synthesized in the body
Which of the following is known to require vitamin K for its synthesis?
b. GI mucosa
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?
a. It participates in synthesis of bone proteins
b. Large amounts can be stored in adipose tissue
c. Good food sources are legumes and raw fruits
d. Intestinal bacterial synthesis provides over 90% of the body's need for most people
It participates in the synthesis of bone proteins
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?
a. A deficiency increases the risk for hemophilia
b. A deficiency leads to keratinization of the cornea
c. Bacteria in the intestines synthesize bioavailable vitamin K
d. There are multiple forms in the diet of which menadione is the naturally occurring form
Bacteria in the intestines synthesize bioavailable vitamin K
Which of the following is a feature of osteocalcin?
a. It activates lysosomes involved in remodeling bone
b. It binds calcium in the GI tract to enhance absorption
c. It requires vitamin K to bind to bone-forming minerals
d. It works synergistically with the kidneys to reduce urinary calcium excretion
It requires vitamin K to bind to bone-forming minerals
Of the following, which would most readily induce a vitamin K deficiency?
b. Antibiotic therapy
c. Presence of oxalic acid in food
d. Insufficient intake of green leafy vegetables
Jennifer has just had a baby. When she brings Thomas home, she regales you with the details of her hospital stay. She mentions that shortly after the birth, Thomas received an intramuscular injection of vitamin K, and she wondered why this was done, as it made him cry. You explained that it
a. was needed to prevent eye disease.
b. prevented possible bleeding events.
c. protected the baby from lipid oxidation.
d. was needed to promote good bone growth.
Prevented possible bleeding events
All of the following are features of vitamin K in nutrition except
a. infants frequently require a supplement at birth.
b. good food sources are plants of the cabbage family.
c. risk of deficiency is increased in people taking antibiotics for prolonged periods.
d. gut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most healthy adults.
gut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most healthy adults.
Knowing the role of vitamin K in the body, in what organ would you expect to find it in large quantities?
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?
a. Deficiencies lead to intravascular clotting
b. Major dietary sources are whole grains and legumes
c. No adverse effects have been reported with high intakes
d. Primary deficiencies are more common than secondary deficiencies
No adverse effects have been reported with high intakes
What type of foods should be controlled in individuals taking anticoagulant medicines?
Green leafy vegetables
Approximately what percentage of the body's store of vitamin K is derived from GI tract bacterial synthesis?
Which of the following is not a fat-soluble vitamin?
Which of the following is a characteristic of free radicals?
a. They are destroyed by cigarette smoking
b. They arise from normal metabolic reactions
c. They typically stop chain reactions associated with the production of peroxides
d. They are known to accumulate even in the presence of abundant antioxidant nutrients
They arise from normal metabolic reaction s