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Enclosure

A large field which were enclosed in order to test new agricultrual ideas and methods

Jethro Tull

invented seed drill

crop rotation

the system of growing crops in different fields but leaving one field fallow in order for the soil to rejuvinate itself

Industrialization

The process of developing machine production fo goods

Factors of production

labor, land , and capital

John Kay

invented flying shuttle

James Hargreaves

invented spinning jenny

Richard Arkwright

invented the water frame

Samuel Compton

invented spinning mule

Edmund Cartwright

invented power loom

Eli Whitney

invented cotton gin

Jeremy Benthem

Utilitarianism judge by utility in market

Utilitarianism

idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people

James Watt

invented the steam engine

Mathew Bolton

invented the steam engine

entrepreneur

someone who is willing to take risks in business

Robert Fulton

invented the steam boat

turnpikes

roads that you had to pay a toll to use

factory

a place where machines were used to make products

locomotive

steam engine on wheels

urbanization

movement of people to cities

slums

poor, run-down urban neighborhoods

Factory Act

limited working hours for children. limited to 10 hours

Luddites

workeres who destoyed the machines because they thought the machines were taking their place

Samuel Slater

built the spinning machine fronm memory in the U.S.

Moses Brown

opened the first factory in Rhode Island

Francis Cabot Lowell

manufactured cloth in Lowell which truned Lowell into a major textile town

John D.Rockerfeller

founder of Standard Oil

Andrew Carnegie

founder of Carnegie Steel Company

corporation

a business owned by stock holders who share in its profits but are no personally responsible for its debts

Cornelius Vanderbilt

Founder of the rail road

Adam Smith

he wrote the Wealth of Nations and defended laissez-faire economics

Thomas Malthus

he wrote An Essay on the Principal of the Population, argued that population grows faster than the food supply

David Riccardo

he wrote the Principal of the Iron Law of Wages, argued that the more money people get the more kids they have which leads to poverty

John Stuart Mill

he believed in Utilitarianism. Tried to improve the lives of the workers, end class differences, prison reform

Robert Owen

He build affordable housing near factories,improved working conditions, outlawed child labor

laissez-faire econmocis

let the market regualte itslef by the laws of supply and demand

Marxism

plitical philosophty founded by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels stating that the proletariat would overthrow the bourgeoise and a classless soceity would be formed

Socialism

a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.

proletariat

a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages

communism

a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.

union

a voluntary group of workers who align themselves based on their trade

strike

when a union refuses to work

collective bargaining

negotiations between workers and their employers

Factory Act

a law which required children to be over the age of nine to work, there was also a restriction on the length of the day

Mines Act

A law passed that prohibited women and children to work in mines

Ten Hours Act

A law which limited the work day to 10 hours for women and children

William Wilberforce

Fought for the the abolition of slavery in England

Jane Addams

She ran settlement houses and was one of the earliest feminists

Horace Mann

He supported free public education for everyone

Alex de Tocqueville

A French writer who supported prison reform.

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