World History - Chapter 14 Study Guide

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The Height of Imperialism Glencoe World History Modern Times

indirect rule

colonial government in which local rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status

direct rule

Colonial government in which local elites are removed from power and replaced by a new set of officials brought from the mother country

Henry Stanley

New York journalist who was sent to find David Livingstone in Africa -- on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika. He carried on Livingstone's work after his death. He tried to get the British to send settlers and when they refused, Belgium colonized it.

David Livingstone

A British medical missionary who trekked through the dense tropical jungles of Africa for 30 years exploring the continent and looking for the source of the Nile River (Lake Victoria). He wanted to abolish slavery.

Partition of Africa

Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Spain and Portugal placed all of Africa under European Rule

Boers

Afrikaners who were the descendants of the original Dutch settlers who occupied Cape Town and the surrounding areas of South Africa. They frequently battled the indigenous peoples of the land they occupied and put them on reservations. They fought the British in the Boer War of
1899 - 1902. Boers beaten by vastly larger British army. In the Union of South Africa created after the war, only whites and a few propertied Africans could vote.

"White Man's Burden"

A European approach to imperialism that was a more religious humanitarian approach. They argued that Europeans had a moral responsibility to civilize primitive people. This meant bringing the Christian message to the "heathen masses". To others it meant bringing the bnefits of Western democray and capitalism to theys societies.

Mohandas Gandhi

Young Hindu from South Africa, born in western India, educated in London as a lawyer. He went to South Africa in 1893 to work as a lawyer for Indian workers. He returned to India to set up nonviolent resistance movement to -- improve lot of the poor and gain independence from Britain.

Civil Resistance in India

movement led by Gandhi which sought to practice non-violence and truth in all situations, and advocated that others do the same. Indians used his methods to work against British rule and eventually gained their independence.

Emilio Aguinaldo

leader of a movement for independence in the Phillipines; set himself up as president of the Republic of the Phillipines;battled bitterly against the U.S.

Phillippine Annexation

President McKinley sought to turn the island into an American colony to avoid having the Japanese take control and to give America an access point to China. The Filipinos revolted against American troops but were defeated and America took control.

Simon Bolivar

a Venezuela leader who liberated South America from Spanish and Portuguese control; he led revolutions.

Jose de San Martin

an Argentina leader who led revolutions in South America; he wanted Spaniards removed from South America.

mestizo

a person of mixed European and native American Indian descent

peninsular

a person born on the Iberian Peninsula; typicaly a Spanish or Portuguese official who resided temporarily in Latin America for political and economic gain and then returned to Europe

Why did Imperialism and search for colonies by Westerners happen -- Four Primary motivations --

- economic motive - capitalist states were looking for markets and raw materials; Europeans wanted more direct control over these
- rivalries - more colonies gave you an advantage
- prestige - colonies were a source of pride for nations
- Social Darwinism and racism - the fit are victorious; some races are superior/inferior to others

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