A long, threadlike structure composed of twisted parallel strands of DNA, found in the cell nucleus.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
The double-stranded molecule that encodes genetic instructions, the chemical basis of heredity.
A unit of DNA on a chromosome that encodes instructions for making a particular protein molecule
The basic unit of heredity.
The scientific description of the complete set of DNA in the human organism, including gene locations
The observable traits or characteristics of an organism as determined by the determined by the interaction of genetics and environmental factors.
Chromosomes, designated as X or Y, that determine biological sex.
23rd pair of chromosomes in humans
The stage of development before birth; divided into the germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods
The second period of prenatal development, extending from the third week through the eight week.
Harmful agents or substances that can cause malformationa or defects in an embryo or fetus.
The third and longest period of prenatal development, extending from the ninth week until birth.
The emotional bond that forms between an infant and caregiver(s), especially his or her parents.
Mary D. Salter
Came up with the idea of a secure base, an idea that the caregiver porovides a sense of comfort and security for the infant.
In Piaget's Theory, the first stage of cognitive development, from birth to about age 2, the period during which the infant explores theenvironemtna nd acquires knowledge through sesing and manipulating objects.
In Piaget's theory, the second stage of cognitive development,which lasts from about age 2 to age 7;
Characterized by increasing use symbols and prelogical thought processes.
In Piaget's theory, the inability to mentally reverse a sequence of events or logical operations.
In Piaget's theory, the tendency to focus, or center, on only one aspect of a situation and ignore other important aspects of the situation.
In Piaget's theory, the understading that two equal quantitites remain equal eventhrough the form or apperance is rearranged, as long as nothing is added or subtracted.
concrete operational stage
In Piaget;s theory, the third stage of cognitive development, which lasts from about age 7 to adolescence;
Characterized by the ability to think logically about concrete objects and situations.
formal operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the fourth stage of cognitive development, which lasts from adolescence through adulthood;
Characterized by the ability to think logically about abstract principles and hypothetical situations.
Believed cognitive development is strongly influenced by soical and cultural factors. Created zone of proximal development.
Zone of proximal development
In Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development, the difference between what children can accomplish on their own and what they can accomplish with the help of others who are more competent.
Information-processing model of cognitive development
The model that views cognitive development as a process that is continued over the lifespan and that studies the development of basic mental processes such as attention, memory, and problem solving.
The traditional stage between late childhood and the beggining of adulthood, during which sexual maturity is reached
The stage of adolescence in which an individual reachessexual maturity and becomes psychologically capable of sexual reproduction.
primary sex characteristics
Sexual organs that are directly involved in reproduction, such as the uterus, overies, penis and testicles.
secondary sex characteristics
Sexual chracteristics that develop during puberty and are not directly involved in reproduction but differiantiate between the sexes, such as male facial hair and female breast development
adolescent growth spurt
The period of accelrated growth during puberty, involving rapid increases in height and weight.
A person's definition or description of himself or herself, including the value, beliefs and ideals that guide the individual's behavior.
activity theory of aging
The psychosocial theory that life satisfaction in late adulthood is highest when people maintain the level of activity they displayed later in life.
authoritarian parenting style
Parenting style in which are demanding and unresponsive toward their children's needs or wishes.
permissive parenting style
Parenting styke in which parents are extremely tolerant and not demanding;
Permissive-indulgent parents are more responsive to their children's needs and wishes.
A discipline technique that combines parental control with explaining why a behavior is prohibited.
Candian-born psychologist whose studies on cognitive development during infancy using visual rather than manual tasks challenged beliefs about an age at which object permanence first appears.
Swiss psychologist whose influential theory proposed that children progress through distinct stages of cognitive development.