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70 percent

Approximately how much of Earth's surface is covered by water?

Pacific

The largest of Earth's oceans is the _____.

sonar

What technology do scientists use to measure ocean depth?

coastal plain

Which of the following is NOT one of the three major regions of the ocean floor?

continental shelf

The gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline toward the deep ocean is called the _____.

trenches

Which part of the ocean is deepest?

30 percent

Approximately how much of Earth's surface is covered by land?

200 years ago

Approximately when did the ocean become an important area of study?

Antarctic

Which of the following is NOT considered one of the four major oceans?

rise

Where trenches do not exist, the steep continental slope merges into a more gradual incline known as the continental ____.

submarine canyons

Deep, steep-sided valleys that originate on the continental slope and may extend to the ocean basin floor are called ____.

seamounts

Isolated volcanic peaks on the ocean floor are called ____.

They are geologically very stable.

Which of the following is NOT true about deep ocean trenches?

Pacific

Which ocean has the greatest average depth?

coal

Which of the following is NOT an energy resource obtained from the ocean?

oil

The Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Mexico, and the North Sea are all known for their reserves of what ocean resource?

sand and gravel

Which ocean resources are second in economic value to oil?

parts per thousand

Ocean salinity is usually expressed in _____.

weathering

What is the principal source of dissolved substances in the oceans?

thermocline

The ocean layer of rapid temperature change with depth is known as the _____.

biogenous sediment

Calcareous ooze is an example of ____.

hydrogenous sediment

Manganese nodules are an example of ____.

hydrogenous sediment

What type of sediment forms from minerals that crystallize from seawater?

30 percent

How much of the world's oil production currently comes from offshore regions?

oil and natural gas

Heat from Earth's interior and pressure from overlying rock transform the remains of marine sediments into ____.

They rapidly break down at surface temperatures and pressures.

What is one disadvantage of using gas hydrates?

silver

Which of the following is NOT an ocean resource?

the salts precipitate out of solution

When seawater evaporates, the concentration of salts increases until which of the following occurs?

nutrients and sunlight

What factors influence a region's photosynthetic productivity?

inefficient

Which term best describes energy transfer between trophic levels?

first step

Where would a primary producer be located in a food chain?

3.5 percent

What is the salinity of seawater?

sodium chloride

What is the most abundant salt in the sea?

deep zone

Most ocean water is located in which zone?

density

Which of the following properties most determines water's vertical position in the ocean?

aphotic

Which of the following is NOT a category of marine organisms?

algae

Which of the following is a type of plankton?

shark

Which of the following is a type of nekton?

They feed on each other.

How do animals survive in the deeper parts of the seafloor?

wavelength

The horizontal distance between two successive crests is called the _____.

grows higher

As the speed and length of a wave decrease, the wave _____.

semidiurnal

Which tidal pattern has two high tides and two low tides each day?

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