Anatomy Chapter 7 Skeletal Worksheets Part 2

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The extra bones that sometimes develop between the flat bones of the skull are called __________.

SUTURAL BONES.

Small bones occurring in some tendons are called _____________ bones.

SESAMOID

The cranium and facial bones compose the __________.

SKULL

The _________ bone supports the tongue.

HYOID

The _________ at the inferior end of the sacrum is composed of several fused vertebrae.

COCCYX

Most ribs are attached anteriorly to the __________.

STERNUM

The thoracic cage is composed of ________ PAIRS of ribs.

12 - (24 ribs in al)

The scapulae and clavicles together form the _________.

PECTORAL GIRDLE.

Which of the following bones is not part of the appendicular skeleton: clavicle, femur, scapula, sternum?

STERNUM

The wrist is composed of eight bones called ________.

CARPALS

The hip bones are attached posteriorly to the _________.

SACRUM

The pelvic girdle (hip bones), sacrum, and coccyx together form the _________.

PELVIS

The _________ covers the anterior surface of the knee.

PATELLA

The bones that articulate with the distal ends of the tibia and fibula are called _________.

TARSALS

All finger and toe bones are called ___________.

PHALANGES

The pectoral girdle is an incomplete ring because it is open in the back between the....

scalpulae

the medial ends of the clavicles articulate with the _______of the sternum

maniubrium

the lateral ends of the clavicles articulate with the ______ of the scapulae

processes

the ______is a bone that serves as a brace between the sternum and scapula

clavicle

the _____ divides the scapula into unequal portions

spine

the tip of the shoulder is the __________ of the scapula

acromino process

at the lateral end of the scapula, the _________curves anteriorly and inferiorly from the clavicle

coronoid process

the glenoid cavity of the scapula articulates with the ___________of the humerous

head

the vertebral column encloses and protects the_________

spinal cord

the number of seperate bones in the vertebral column of an infant is ___

33

the number of separate bones in the vertebral column of an adult is ____

26

the thoracic and pelvic curvatures of the vertebral column are called_____

primary

the ____ of the vertebrae support the weight of the head and trunk

body

the __________separate adjacent vertebrae, and they soften the forces created by walking

intervertebral discs

the pedicles, laminae, and spinous process of a vertebra form the _____

vertebral arch

the intervertebral foramina provide passageways for _____

spinal nerves

transervse foramina of cervical vertebrae serve as passageways for ____leading to the brain

arteries

the first vertebrae also is called the

atlas

the second vertebrae is also called the

axis

when the head is moved from side to side, the first vertebrae pivots around the _____of the second vertibrae

dens

the ____ vertebrae have the largest and strongest bodies

lumbar

the number of vertebrae that fuse to form the sacrum is ____

5

the joint between a coxal bone of the pelvis and the sacrum is called the ________joint

sacroiliac joint

the upper, anterior margin of the sacrum that projects forward is called the

sacral promentory

an opening called the _____exists at the tip of the sacral canal

sacral hietus

the adult skeleton of most men and women contains a total number of ____bones

206

the last two pairs of ribs that have no cartilaginous attachemnts to the sternum are sometimes called ____ribs

floating

the tubercles of the ribs articulate with facets on the ____processes

transverse

costal cartilages are composed of

hyaline cartilage

the manubrium articulates with the ____on its superior border

clavicle

list three general functions of the thoracic cage

protects organs of the thoracic cavity
aids in breathing
support

raised area on lateral surface of humerus to which deltoid muscle attaches

deltoid tuberosity

arm bone

humerus

bones composing the shoulder girdle

Clavicle and scapula

forearm bones

Radius and Ulna

point where scapula and clavicle connect

acromion

shoulder girdle bone that has no attachment to the axial skeleton

scapula

shoulder girdle bone that articulates anteriorly with the sternum

clavicle

socket in the scapula for the arm bone

glenoid cavity

process above the glenoid cavity that permits muscle attachment

coracoid process

commonly called the collarbone

clavicle

distal medial process of the humerus; joins the ulna

capitulum

medial bone of the forearm in anatomical position

radius

rounded knob on the humerus that articulates with the radius

trochlea

Anterior depression; superior to the trochlea; receives part of the ulna when the forearm is flexed

Coronoid Fossa

forearm bone involved in formation of elbow joint

ulna

bones that articulate with the clavicle

Sternum and Scapula

bones of the wrist

carpals

bones of the fingers

phalanges

heads of these bones form the knuckles

metacarpals

the head of the numerous fits into the ........of the scapula

glenoid cavity

the heel bone is called the

calcaneus

the elbow joint is an example of a ......joint in which movement occurs in only one plane

hinge

The most important minerals stored in bones are:
A) calcium and iron
B) sodium and phosphorus
C) sodium and potassium
D) calcium and phosphorus
E) calcium and potassium

D) calcium and phosphorus

Which of the following groups of bones in the human body, categorized according to shape, is correct:
A) wrist and ankle bones - long bones B) arm and leg bones - short bones C) skull bones - flat bones
D) coxal bones - irregular bones
E) cranium - sesamoid bones

D) coxal bones - irregular bones

Which of the following bone categories is composed of two layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone between them:
A) compact bone
B) irregular bone
C) flat bone
D) long bone
E) sesamoid bone

C) flat bone

A shallow, basin-like depression in a bone often serving as an articular surface is a:
A) sinus
B) meatus
C) fossa
D) foramen
E) groove

C) fossa

A round or oval opening through a bone is a:
A) facet
B) fossa
C) foramen
D) fissure
E) trochanter

C) foramen

The small cavities in bone tissue where osteocytes are found are called:
A) lacunae
B) Volkmann's canals
C) Haversian canals
D) trabeculae
E) lamellae

A) lacunae

A compound fracture can be described as when:
A) the bone is crushed
B) the broken bone ends are forced into each other
C) the broken bone is exposed to the outside
D) the bone is broken into many fragments
E) adjacent bones fracture simultaneously

C) the broken bone is exposed to the outside

A bone fracture where the bone is broken into many fragments is a:

A) compound fracture
B) simple fracture
C) comminuted fracture
D) compression fracture
E) greenstick fracture

C) comminuted fracture

A fracture that is common in children, whose bones have relatively more collagen in their matrix and are more flexible than those of adults, is a(n):
A) impacted fracture
B) spiral fracture
C) depressed fracture
D) greenstick fracture
E) open fracture

E) open fracture

A fracture that is common in osteoporotic bones is a(n):
A) impacted fracture
B) compression fracture
C) spiral fracture
D) depressed fracture
E) simple fracture

B) compression fracture

The axial skeleton contains:
1. skull
2. arms and legs
3. ribs and sternum
4. vertebrae
5. pelvic girdles
A) 1, 3, 4, 5
B) 1, 3, 4
C) 2, 5
D) 2, 3, 4, 5
E) 1, 2, 3, 5

B) 1, 3, 4

Which of these bones is NOT associated with the foot:
A) talus
B) calcaneus
C) metatarsals
D) tarsals
E) metacarpals

E) metacarpals

The hyoid bone is unique because

A) it is the only bone of the body that does not directly articulate with any other bone
B) it has an unusual shape
C) it is covered with mucosa
D) it has no specific function
E) it largely consists of cartilage

A) it is the only bone of the body that does not directly articulate w

The sella turcica is part of the __________ bone.
A) parietal
B) ethmoid
C) sphenoid
D) temporal
E) frontal

C) sphenoid

There are __________ vertebrae in the neck region.

A) five thoracic
B) seven lumbar
C) seven cervical D) twelve thoracic E) five lumbar

C) seven cervical

Transverse foramina are found in the: A) sacrum
B) coccyx
C) thoracic vertebrae
D) lumbar vertebrae
E) cervical vertebrae

E) cervical vertebrae

The atlas is the:
A) last lumbar vertebra
B) first thoracic vertebra
C) part of the sacrum
D) second cervical vertebra
E) first cervical vertebra

E) first cervical vertebra

Which is the correct order of ribs, from superior to inferior:
A) floating ribs, true ribs, false ribs
B) floating ribs, false ribs, true ribs
C) true ribs, false ribs, floating ribs
D) true ribs, floating ribs, false ribs
E) false ribs, floating ribs, true ribs

C) true ribs, false ribs, floating ribs

The sternum is the result of fusion of three bones called the:

A) ischium, ilium, coccyx
B) pubis, ischium, ilium
C) manubrium, body, xiphoid process
D) jugular notch, sternal angle, xiphisternal joint
E) true ribs, manubrium, xiphoid process

C) manubrium, body, xiphoid process

The greater trochanter is located on the:
A) radius
B) humerus
C) fibula
D) tibia
E) femur

E) femur

The tailbone is the:

A) ischium
B) sacrum
C) pubis
D) coccyx
E) patella

D) coccyx

Which of the following is correct of the female pelvis when comparing it with the male pelvis:
A) the angle of the female pubic arch is smaller
B) the distance between the female ischial spines is greater
C) the distance between the female ischial tuberosities is less
D) the female iliac bones are less flared
E) the female pelvis as a whole is deeper, and the bones are heavier and thicker

B) the distance between the female ischial spines is greater

A structure found on the femur is the:

A) anterior crest
B) trochlea
C) lateral malleolus
D) intercondylar fossa
E) medial malleolus

D) intercondylar fossa

Fingers and toes are referred to as:

A) tarsals
B) metacarpals
C) phalanges
D) metatarsals
E) carpals

C) phalanges

Which of these bones is NOT a long bone found in the leg:

A) femur
B) patella
C) fibula
D) metatarsals
E) tibia

B) patella

Four of the five answers listed below are parts of the same anatomical area. Select the exception.

A) humerus
B) radius
C) scapula
D) fibula
E) clavicle

D) fibula

List some of the features of a female pelvis that make it different from a male pelvis.

Answer: The female pelvis:

a. has a larger and more circular inlet.
b. is shallower than the male pelvis.
c. has lighter and thinner bones.
d. has a shorter and less curved sacrum.
e. has a more rounded pubic arch.
f. has shorter ischial spines that are also farther apart.

True/False

Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavities of certain bones.

true

True/False

The diaphysis of a long bone is composed of spongy bone.

Answer:
FALSE

True/False

All flat bones are formed from hyaline cartilage.

Answer:
FALSE

True/False

Osteoblasts respond to the parathyroid hormone (PTH).

Answer:
FALSE

(osteoclasts do)

True/False

Ribs numbered 11 and 12 are true ribs because they have no anterior attachments

Answer:
FALSE

True/False

The zygomatic bones form the cheekbones.

Answer:
TRUE

True/False


The spinal cord passes through the body of each vertebra.

Answer:
FALSE

True/False


Most of the stress on the vertebral column occurs on the sturdiest vertebrae in the sacral region.

Answer:
FALSE

True/False

In anatomical position, the lateral lower leg bone is the fibula.

Answer:
TRUE

True/False

There are seven cervical, twelve thoracic, and five lumbar vertebrae.

Answer:
TRUE

True/False

The heaviest, strongest bone in the body is the femur.

Answer:
TRUE

True/False


Spinal curvatures that are present at birth are called primary curvatures (the cervical and lumbar curvatures) and those that develop later are secondary curvatures (the thoracic and sacral curvatures).

Answer:
FALSE

True/False

Fontanels allow for growth of the brain.

Answer:
TRUE

Explain how atlas and axis are different from other vertebrae. Discuss the roles they play in the body.

Answer:
1. Unlike all other vertebra, atlas (C1) has no body. Axis (C2) has a large process called the dens or odontoid process.
2. The structural differences of these two vertebrae allow you to rotate your head from side to side to indicate "no." The joint between these two vertebrae is a pivot joint.

Differentiate the roles of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes in bone.

Answer:
1. Osteoclasts are giant bone-destroying cells that break down bone matrix and release calcium ions into the blood. They are activiated by a hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH).
2. Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells. They add bone tissue to growing bones.
3. Osteocytes are mature bone cells. In their former lives, they were osteoblasts that laid down bone matrix, but became trapped in it.

If 6-year-old Sarah fell and broke her femur, damaging the proximal epiphyseal plate, what might she expect as she grows older? What is an epiphyseal plate and why is it significant to this situation?

Answer:
The epiphyseal plate is a flat plate of hyaline cartilage seen in young growing bone. Epiphyseal plates cause the lengthwise growth of long bone.

Since this child is still growing and has not completed puberty, she may expect impaired growth in that one epiphyseal plate.

Lucky for Sarah, there is an epiphyseal plate located at both the distal and proximal ends of the femur. The healthy distal plate can continue to grow.

Discuss the two factors that cause bone remodeling throughout life.

Answer:
1. Calcium levels in the bloodstream determine when bone is to be broken down. When calcium levels in the bloodstream drop below normal, the parathyroid glands produce and release parathyroid hormone (PTH) into the blood. PTH activates osteoclasts (giant bone-destroying cells in bone) to break down bone and release calcium into the blood. Conversely, when calcium levels in the bloodstream are too high, osteoblasts (bone-forming cells in bone) are activated and calcium is deposited in bone matrix as hard calcium salts.
2. Stresses of muscle pull and gravity acting on the skeleton determine where bone matrix is to be broken down or formed so that the skeleton can remain strong for as long as possible. Long bones grow in length and in thickness as the body increases in size and as a result of the activity of bulky muscles. At these sites, osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) lay down new matrix and become trapped within it. Once they are trapped, they become osteocytes or true bone cells.

__________ are giant cells that destroy bone.

Answer:
Osteoclasts

A large rounded projection on a bone is called a __________.

Answer:
tuberosity

The only freely movable bone in the skull is the __________.

Answer:
mandible

The part of the ethmoid bone that contains holey areas with fibers that carry impulses from the olfactory receptors of the nose to the brain is the __________.

Answer:
cribriform plate

The external acoustic (auditory) meatus is found on the __________ bone.

Answer:
temporal

raised area on lateral surface of humerus to which deltoid muscle attaches

deltoid tuberosiry

wrist bones

carpals

finger bones

phalanges

bones that articulate with the clavicle

scapula, sternum

How is the arm held clear of the widest dimension of the thoracic cage?

the clavicle acts as a strut to hold the glenoid cavity of the scapula (therefore the arm) laterally away from the narrowest dimension of the rib cage

What is the total number of phalanges in the hand

14

What is the total number of carpals in the wrist?

8

Name the carpals (medial to lateral) in the proximal row.

pisiform, triangular, Iunate, scaphoid

Name the carpals (medial to lateral) In the distal row

hamare, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium

What organs are protected, at least in part, by the pelvic girdle?

uterus, urinary bladder, small intestine, rectum

Distinguish between the true pelvis and the false pelvis

The true pelvis is the region inferior to the pelvic brim, which is encircled by bone.

The false pelvis is the area medial to the flaring iliac bones and lies superior to the pelvic brim

Deduce why the pelvic bones of a fourJegged animal such as the cat or pig are much less massive than those of the human

The pelvic girdle does not have to carry the entire weight of the trunk in the quadruped animal

A person instinctively curls over his abdominal area in times of danger. Why?

Abdominal area organs receive the least protection from the skeletal system

What does fallen arches mean?

A weakening, of the tendons and ligaments supporting the arches of the foot

what fuses to form the coxal bone (3 things)

ilium, ischium, pubis

"sit-down" bone of the coxal bone

ischium

point where the coxal bones join anteriorly

pubic symphysis

superiormost margin of the coxal bone

iliac crest

deep socket in the coxal bone that receives the head of the thigh bone

acetabulum

joint between axial skeleton and pelvic girdle

sacroiliac joint

longest, strongest bone in body

femur

thin lateral leg bone

fibula

heavy medial leg bone

tibia

bones forming knee joint

femur, tibia

point where the patellar ligament attaches

tibial tuberosity

knee cap

patella

shinbone

tibia

medial ankle projection

medial malleolus

lateral ankle projection

lateral malleolus

largest tarsal bone

calcaneus

ankle bones

tarsals

bones forming the instep of the foot

metatarsals

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