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In middle childhood, children grow an average of _____ inches in height and ______ pounds in weight each year.

2 to 3; 5

After age 8, girls

begin accumulating fat at a faster rate than boys.

As muscles adapt to an enlarging skeleton, children often experience

nighttime "growing pains."

Which of the following children is at the greatest risk for asthma?

Thomas, an overweight African-American boy who lives in an inner-city area

) Research on sex differences in motor skills during middle childhood indicates that

) girls outperform boys on skills that depend on agility and balance.

___________ contribute greatly to emotional and social development and are rarely contests of individual ability

) Child-invented games

One valid criticism of adult-organized youth sports is that

they overemphasize competition and substitute children's natural experimentation with rules and strategies.

Which of the following is true about children's rough-and-tumble play?

It helps children establish a dominance hierarchy.

Piaget regarded __________ as an important achievement of the concrete operational stage because it provides clear evidence of __________.

conservation; operations

Jamal is able to think through a series of steps and then mentally return to the starting point. Therefore, Jamal is capable of

reversibility.

A concrete operational child can _________ mentally, an ability called _________________.

seriate; transitive inference

Some investigators have concluded that the forms of logic required by Piagetian tasks do not emerge spontaneously but, rather, are

heavily influenced by training, context, and cultural conditions.

The information-processing perspective

examines separate aspects of thinking.

When Taylor was given a list of ingredients to memorize, she immediately repeated the list to herself over and over. Which memory strategy did Taylor use?

rehearsal

Luke has a science test on Friday and knows that he needs to focus his attention during class and apply memory strategies when studying. Luke is demonstrating

metacognitive awareness.

Children who acquire effective self-regulatory skills develop

academic self-efficacy.

Most reading experts believe that

a whole-language approach is the best method for teaching beginning reading.

According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of middle childhood is

industry versus inferiority.

Jacob, a sixth grader, entered the middle school academic bowl. According to Erikson, by entering the competition, Jacob shows

industriousness.

According to Erikson, a sense of _________ can develop in middle childhood when family life fails to prepare children for school life or when teachers and peers destroy children's feelings of competence and mastery with negative responses.

inferiority

As school-age children move into adolescence, self-concept is increasingly vested in

feedback from close friends.

Compared to his Western agemates, Chao, who lives in China, will most likely describe himself by referencing his

academic and sports-related skills.

____________ parenting is associated with unrealistically high self-esteem.

Indulgent

Nadia's parents are repeatedly disapproving and insulting. As a result, Nadia probably __________ and relies heavily on__________ to affirm her self-worth.

needs constant reassurance; peers

When Tyler receives a high test grade, he attributes it to luck, but when he gets a low test grade, he attributes it to not being smart. Tyler has developed

learned helplessness.

Despite their higher achievement, _______ often blame poor performance on __________.

girls; ability

In contrast to Americans, Asians focus more on ________ because ______________.

failure; it indicates where corrective action is needed

Which of the following statements is true about self-conscious emotions in middle childhood?

Pride motivates children to take on further challenges, whereas guilt prompts them to strive for self-improvement.

By the end of middle childhood, children display a strong desire for

group belonging

) Maddy spends most of her time with a particular set of friends. Within this group, there are specific standards of behavior, a specialized dress code, and identified leaders. Maddy is most likely

part of a peer group.

In middle childhood, __________ contributes to the development of trust and sensitivity.

friendship

Once a friendship forms, ________ becomes its defining feature

trust

Which of the following statements is true about parent-child relationships in middle childhood?

When both parents are present, fathers engage in as much caregiving as mothers.

Which of the following is supported by research on sibling rivalry?

Sibling rivalry tends to be more frequent among siblings who are close in age.

According to Erikson, the major personality achievement of adolescence is development of

identity

Sayuri is constructing her identity. Based on Erikson's theory, this process involves

defining what she values.

According to Erikson, teenagers in complex societies experience

an identity crisis.

From middle to late adolescence, cognitive changes enable teenagers to

combine their traits into an organized system

Which of the following statements exemplifies 15-year-old Noah's awareness that psychological qualities can vary from one situation to the next?

"I have a fairly quick temper."

Among older adolescents, __________ appear as key themes in self-concept.

personal and moral values

) Shelby accepts her family's religious beliefs without question. She is characterized by identity

foreclosure

Laurent plans to major in engineering in college. When asked if he might change his career path, he responds, "I might, but I doubt it. I've spent a lot of time studying my options. I'm pretty sure engineering is right for me." Laurent is demonstrating identity

achievement

Which of the following is a strategy for helping minority adolescents resolve identity conflicts constructively?

respecting native languages and unique learning style in school.

Which of the following is true about bicultural identity?

) Adolescents form a bicultural identity by exploring and adopting values from various subcultures and rejecting the values of the dominant culture.

At Kohlberg's conventional level,

individuals believe that actively maintaining the current social system ensures positive relationships and societal order.

In response to the Heinz dilemma, Marlee says, "No one will think you are bad if you steal the drug, but your family will think you are an inhumane husband if you don't. If you let your wife die, you'll never be able to look anyone in the face again." Marlee is at which of Kohlberg's stages of moral development?

Stage 5: The social contract orientation

Which of the following is the most likely to contribute to gender intensification in adolescence?

the magnification of sex differences in appearance caused by puberty

Which child is likely to be psychologically healthier?

gabriella, girl who has an androgynous gender identity.

Seventeen-year-old Saffron strives to rely on herself and not her parents for decision making. Saffron is developing

autonomy.

Mild family conflict

) informs parents of the changing needs and expectations of their children, signaling that adjustments in the parent-child relationship are necessary.

Teenagers in the United States spend more time together outside the classroom than teenagers in Europe and Asia because
A) European and Asian parents put strict limits on their children's free time.

U.S. teenagers experience a shorter school year and less demanding academic standards.

According to anthropologist Margaret Mead, _____________ is/are entirely responsible for the range of teenage experiences.
A) biology

the social environment

Most researchers today believe that adolescent development is

influenced by biological, psychological, and social forces.

Fourteen-year-old Phil experiences muscle and body growth and notices the growth of facial and body hair. Which of the following hormones is responsible for this change?

testosterone

The first outward sign of puberty is

the rapid gain in height and weight known as the growth spurt.

Mary and Ashley are identical twins. Abbie and Chandra are fraternal twins. Which of the following is most likely to be true about the timing of puberty?

Mary and Ashley will reach menarche within a month or two of each other.

Girls exposed to family conflict tend to reach menarche __________, whereas those with warm family ties tend to reach menarche __________.

early; relatively late

Some evidence suggests that _______________ families may better prepare girls for menarche, treat it as an important milestone, and express less conflict over girls reaching sexual maturity.

African-American

Which of the following is true about the onset of menarche and spermarche?

Almost all girls eventually tell a friend that they are menstruating, but fewer boys tell anyone about spermarche.

Initiation ceremonies in industrialized nations, such as the Jewish bar or bat mitzvah and the quinceañera in Hispanic communities, have less effect on the timing of puberty than initiation ceremonies in tribal and village societies because they

usually do not lead to a meaningful change in social status.

Randy is viewed by both adults and peers as anxious, overly talkative, and attention-seeking. Maria is viewed by both groups as physically attractive, lively, and sociable. Which of the following is likely to be true?

Randy and Maria are both late-maturing teens.

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