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People who score high on the Big Five trait dimension known as ________ are also more likely to earn better high school and university grades.

conscientiousness

People who take personality inventories can lie in order to create a good impression. This best illustrates that the objectivity in scoring personality inventories does not guarantee that they

have validity.

Those with an internal locus of control act ________ independently and feel ________ depressed than those with an external locus of control.

more; less

Some sexually active undergraduate women do not consistently use contraceptives because they see themselves as less vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy than most other undergraduate women. This best illustrates

unrealistic optimism

We are most likely to experience cognitive dissonance if we feel

a great sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally disapprove

In explaining the actions of people we do not know well, we often demonstrate the

fundamental attribution error.

Narcissism is associated with

more gambling and more cheating

People's scores on a test of extraversion are likely to be most strongly correlated with the number of social conversations they initiate during the course of a single

month

After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg's reaction most clearly illustrates

learned helplessness

Frida was informed by a professional palm reader: "You generally communicate openly with others, but you have certain dark secrets that even your closest friends could never guess." The fact that Frida was impressed by the palm reader's insight into her personality best illustrates

the Barnum effect

The fundamental attribution error is likely to lead observers to attribute a stranger's

act of kindness to a compassionate personality

Learned helplessness is MOST likely to be associated with

an external locus of control

Personality is fruitfully studied at multiple levels of analysis because people are best understood as

biopsychosocial organisms.

Which of the following is a basic personality factor assessed by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire?
Answer
A.
emotional stability.
B.
repression.
C.
individualism.
D.
self-transcendence.

emotional stability.

The Big Five trait dimensions were identified by means of

factor analysis.

People's scores on a test of agreeableness are ________ predictors of how agreeable they will act in one particular situation. Their scores are ________ predictors of how agreeable they will act on average over many different situations.

poor; good

In every one of the 53 countries surveyed, people typically expressed self-esteem above the midpoint of the most widely used self-esteem scale. This best illustrates the pervasiveness of

self-serving bias

Which of the following processes most obviously operates in groupthink?

group polarization

Psychologist Jean Twenge refers to today's new generation as Generation Me because it expresses high levels of

narcissism

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classifies people according to personality types identified by

Carl Jung.

Heritability generally runs about ________ percent or a tad bit more for each of the Big Five trait dimensions.

50

Social loafing refers to the tendency for people to

exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal.

Fernando's favorable attitude toward capital punishment began to change when he was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a university debate class. His attitude change is best explained by ________ theory.

cognitive dissonance

The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the interactive influences of our traits and our

situations.

Attribution theory was designed to account for

how people explain others' behavior.

The Eysencks believed that extraversion and emotionality are

genetically influenced.

After an exciting football game in which the home team loses by one point, angry fans throw bottles and begin to tear up the field. This behavior is best understood in terms of

deindividuation.

Studies of college students' conscientiousness revealed only a modest relationship between a student being conscientious on one occasion and being similarly conscientious on another occasion. This should make psychologists more cautious about overestimating the impact of ________ on behavior.

personality traits

The impact of our actions on our attitudes is best illustrated by the

foot-in-the-door phenomenon

Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of

role playing on attitudes.

A person who experiences defensive self-esteem is ________ to demonstrate self-serving bias and is ________ to feel angry when criticized.

likely; likely

When faced with an ever-increasing number of consumer product choices, people often experience the discomfort of

information overload.

Trait theorists are more concerned with ________ personality than with ________ it.

describing; explaining

Individuals with high self-esteem are more likely than those with low self-esteem to

work persistently at difficult tasks.

After hearing respected medical authorities lecture about the value of regular exercise, Raul, who has rarely exercised, begins to jog regularly. The change in Raul's behavior best illustrates the impact of

informational social influence

By enabling like-minded White supremacists to pool their ideas, Internet social networking sites are likely to contribute to

group polarization

Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior.

belief-based feelings

Those who perceive an internal locus of control believe that

individuals can influence their own outcomes in life.

Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks developed

learned helplessness

We have a tendency to explain the behavior of strangers we have observed in only one type of situation in terms of ________ and to explain our own behavior in terms of ________.

personality traits; situational constraints

Our ignorance of what we don't know helps to sustain

confidence in our own abilities.

The ill-fated decision of President John F. Kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of

groupthink.

Blindfolded university students were observed to pull harder on a rope when they thought they were pulling alone than when they thought three others were pulling with them on the same rope. This best illustrates

social loafing.

Which of the following terms is used to describe the study of 15 positive emotions, desirable character traits, and enabling communities?

positive psychology

The Milgram obedience experiments were controversial because the

"teachers" were deceived and frequently subjected to stress.

Which of the following is MOST likely to be associated with high self-esteem?

self-serving bias

In the long run, people who practice self-regulation through physical exercise and time-managed study programs experience an increase in

self-control.

A business leader who welcomes a variety of opinions from subordinates and invites experts' critiques of her company's developing plans is most likely to inhibit

groupthink.

Unlike country, pop, and religious music lovers, those who prefer classical, jazz, blues, and folk music tend to score high on the Big Five trait dimension known as

openness.

The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to

comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.

Research participants believed that the Asch conformity test involved a study of

visual perception.

Learned helplessness is most likely to promote

pessimism.

Vanna is tempted to shoplift a gold necklace even though she has negative feelings about shoplifting. Vanna is LEAST likely to steal the merchandise if

she easily recalls her negative feelings about shoplifting.

Deindividuation refers to

a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group's judgment of the lengths of lines

even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect

Kelly loves to boast about her accomplishments and becomes very upset when anyone criticizes her. Kelly most clearly demonstrates

defensive self-esteem.

Our explanations of our own admirable actions are ________ likely to involve situational attributions than our explanations of our own shameful actions. Our explanations of our own actions performed long ago are ________ likely to involve dispositional attributions than our explanations of our own very recent actions.

less; more

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