a written change to the Constitution
people who opposed the constitution
Articles of Confederation
a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states, weak central gov. strong state gov.
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Constitutional Convention proposal that created a House proportionate to population and a Senate in which all states were represented equally
the body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of a government
the legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution
Declaration of Independence
a 1776 document stating that the 13 English colonies were a free and independent nation
a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay published in NY newspapers and used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony
New Jersey Plan
New Jersey delegate William Paterson's plan of government, in which states got an equal number of representatives in Congress
separation of powers
a principle of govt. whereby constitutional authority is shared by 3 separate branches of govt.
Early 1787, rebellion by farmers in debt, which was quickly stopped stopped by President George Washington
An agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 to count 3/5 of slave population in state representatives
Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states
Interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth that James Madison attacked in Federalist Paper No. 10.
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
supporters of the stronger central govt. who advocated the ratification of the new constitution
Marbury v Madison
established concept of judicial review, first time supreme court declared something 'unconstitutional'
an implicit agreement among people that results in the organization of society
the expressed powers of Congress that are itemized and numbered 1-18 in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution
Clause in the Constitution that allows Congress to pass laws necessary to carry out its enumerated powers
basic principle of American government which states that government is restricted in what it may do, and each individual has rights that government cannot take away
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
Loose unit of independent states. In this type of government each state has it's own government. Each state retains its independency.
constitutional declaration (Article VI) that the Constitution and laws made under its provisions are the greatest law of the land
the way in which changes are added to the Constitution, 2/3 vote in congress, 3/4 of states
A law making body made of two houses (bi means 2). Example: Congress (our legislature) is made of two house - The House of Representatives and The Senate.
a group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president
an agreement between the President and the leader of another country
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
A structure of government proposed by James Madison in which the powers of the government are separated into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.
formal approval, final consent to the effectiveness of a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty