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All 45 medical terms from Ch. 2

physiology

study of the functions of body structures

ventral

refers to front or belly side of the body or organ

dorsal

refers to the back of the organ or body

anterior

situated in front, forward or front side of organ

posterior

situated in back, back part of an organ

cephalic

toward the head

caudal

toward the lower part of the body

homeostasis

body processes used to maintain constant internal environment

abdominopelvic

area covered by the abdominal and pelvic cavities together

hypochondriac

area covered by the lower ribs on the left and ride side of body

epigastric

area located above the stomach

lumbar

area between the ribs and pelvis on left and right side of body

iliac

area of the body over the left and right hip bones

hypogastric

area below the stomach

retroperitoneal

located behind the peritoneum

cytology

study of the anatomy, physiology, pathology, and chemistry of cells

cytoplasm

material within cell membrane, except for nucleus

genetics

study of transmission of genes from parent to child and role of genes in health and disease

histology

study of the structure, function, and composition of tissues

histologist

specialist who studies organization of tissues at all levels

adipose

fat

aplasia

defective development or congenital absence of organ or tissue

hypoplasia

incomplete development of an organ or tissue due to low number of cells

anaplasia

change in the structure of cells and their orientation to one another

dysplasia

abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, organs

hyperplasia

enlargement of an organ or tissue due to abnormal increase in the number of cells

hypertrophy

increase in the bulk of an organ or body part due to the enlargement in the size of the cells

exocrine

secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead to other organs or out of the body

endocrine

secrete hormones into the bloodstream to be transported to other parts of the body

adenitis

inflammation of a gland

adenocarcinoma

malignant tumor that started in glandular tissue

adenoma

benign tumor that looks like glandular tissue

adenomalacia

abnormal softening of a gland

adenosis

any diseased condition of a gland

adenosclerosis

abnormal hardening of a gland

adenectomy

surgical removal of a gland

pathology

study of the nature and cause of disease that involves changes in structure and function

pathologist

physician who uses tissue samples to confirm or establish a diagnosis

etiology

study of the causes of diseases

epidemiologist

specialist who studies outbreaks of diseases in populations

endemic

ongoing presence of disease within a population, group, or area

epidemic

sudden, widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population

pandemic

outbreak of a disease occurring over a large geographic area

idiopathic

illness without known cause

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum

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