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James Monroe

Fifth President. Led during the "Era of Good Feelings," which was marked by the domination of his political party, the Democratic-Republicans, and the decline of the Federalist Party. Established the Monroe Doctrine as a wide-ranging policy for foreign affairs. National identity grew, most notably through the westward movement of the country and various public works projects.

Monroe Doctrine

Developed by President James Monroe. Held that the United States would not allow foreign powers to establish new colonies in the western hemisphere or allow existing colonies to be influenced by outside powers. America feared international influence because of a period of worldwide revolutionary fervor after Napoleon's fall. Another cause: Many Latin American countries were gaining independence from Spain, and the United States thought that these colonies might be taken over by other European powers, threatening American security. The doctrine had a lasting impact beyond Monroe's time in office; other presidents, from Coolidge to Kennedy, have invoked it to deal with their own foreign affairs issues.

Convention of 1818

Provided for boundary between the United States and Canada at the forty-ninth parallel. Allowed joint occupancy of Oregon Territory by Americans and Canadians. Permitted American fishermen to fish in the waters of Newfoundland and Labrador.

McCulloch v. Maryland

Marshall Court decision. Determined that no state could control and agency of the federal government. Maryland tried to levy a tax on a local branch of the United States Bank to protect its own state banks. Supreme Court determined such state action violated Confess's "implied powers" to operate a national bank. Use of judicial review over state law made this a devision of powers case.

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

Marshall Court decision. Severely limited the power of the state governments to control corporations, which were the emerging form of business. New Hampshire legislature tried to change Dartmouth from a private to a public institution by having its charter revoked. The Court ruled that the charter issued during colonial days still constituted a contract and could not be arbitrarily changed without the consent of both parties. Reaffirmed the sanctity of contracts.

Adams-Onis Treaty

Helped define the United States-Mexico border. The border that was under Spanish control had created conflict between the two countries. Spain sold its remaining Florida territory to the United States and drew the boundary of Mexico to the Pacific. United States ceded its claims to Texas, and Spain kept California and the New Mexico region. United States assumed $5 million in debts owed by Spain to American merchants. Later, lands kept by Spain would become battleground for American expansion.

King Cotton in the Early 1800's

The new invention of the cotton gin separated the seeds from the fibers. New states (such as Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) began producing cotton. Led to a boom in the cotton market, and its global effects crowned the staple as "King Cotton." The need for cotton encouraged westward expansion.

Transportation Revolution

Innovations included new construction of roads, additions of canals, and the expansion of the railroads. Robert Fulton built the modern-day steamboat, transforming river transportation. Henry Clay promoted internal improvements to help develop transportation. The transportation revolution cheapened the market for trade and encouraged population movement west of the Appalachian Mountains.

The Second Great Awakening and Protestant Revivalism

A wave of religious fervor spread through a series of camp meeting revivals. The "Burnt Over District," an area in upstate New York was the center of the movement. Protestant revivalism rejected the Calvinist doctrine of predestination and held instead that salvation was in the individual's hands. Revivalism was a reaction to rationalism, emphasizing strong nationalism and the improvement of society through social reform. Revivalism included participation by women and African Americans, Demonstrating the influence and growth of democracy. Created diversity in American religious sects and some anti-Catholic sentiment.

Antebellum Reform

Explosion in the number of colleges (Oberlin college in Ohio became the first co-ed college) Expansion of state-supported elementary schools and other public schooling, in part due to the leadership of Horace Mann. Dorothea Dix led in the establishment of asylums for humane treatment of the insane. Prisons were also reformed

Dorothea Dix

Social reformer who worked to help the mentally ill. Northeastern jails housed both criminals and the mentally ill in the same facilities. Dix became determined to change this. Her memorandum to the Massachusetts state legislature in 1842 led to the establishment of state hospitals for the insane.

The Lowell System

A popular way of staffing New England factories. Young Women were hired from the surrounding countrysides, brought to town, and housed in dorms in mil towns for a short period. The owners called these "factories in the garden" to spread the idea that these facilities would not replicate the dirty, corrupt mills in English towns. The rotating labor supply benefitted owners, as no unions could be formed against them. The system depended on technology to increase production.

Slave Codes

A series of laws that limited slave rights. Slave owners were given authority to impose harsh physical punishment and control their slaves in any fashion they sought, without court intervention. Prohibited slaves from owning weapons, becoming educated, meeting with other African Americans without permission, and testifying against whites in court. Severely limited the rights of slaves.

Washington Irving

In his time, he was the best-known native writer in the United States and one of the first American writers to gain fame throughout Europe. His satire is considered some of the first great comic literature written by an American. Stories included Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow (both in 1820) His writings reflected an increasing nationalism, as the stories were based in American settings.

Transcendentalism

Movement to transcend the bounds of the intellect and to strive for emotional unity with god. Believed that people were capable of unity with God without the help of the institutional church. Saw church as reactionary and stifling to self-expression. Included writers so as Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson.

Utopian Communities

Movement that copied early European efforts at utopianism. Attempt by cooperative communities to improve life in the face of increasing industrialism. Groups practiced there social experiments that generally saw little success due to their radicalism. Included attempts at sexual equality, racial equality, and socialism. Two of these communities were Brook Farm and Oneida.

Romanticism

A belief in the innate goodness of man, nature, and traditional values, rooted in turn of the century Europe. Emphasized emotions and feelings over rationality. Reaction against the excesses of the enlightenment led to a growing push for social reform.

Missouri Compromise

Henry Clays solution to deadlock over the issue of accepting proposed new state Missouri. At the time, the senate was evenly divided between slave and free states. A slave state of Missouri would tip the balance of power. John Tallmadge added and antislavery amendment meant to prohibit the growth of slavery into Missouri and to free slaves already in Missouri when they had reached a certain age. The Tallmadge Amendment caused the senate to block the Missouri Compromise and sparked heated debate about the future of slavery. To settle the dispute, northern Massachusetts became a new free state (Maine). The legislative section prohibiting slavery in Missouri was replaced by a clause stating that all land of the Louisiana Purchase north of thirty-sex-thirty north latitude would prohibit slavery.

Denmark Vesey

A slave who won enough money in a lottery to buy his own freedom. Gained wealth and influence in South Carolina. Accused of using church get-togethers to plan a violent slave revolt. Vesey and thirty-four other slaves were hanged. Some historians doubt the conspiracy was real.

Gibbons v. Ogden

Marshall Court decision. Determined that only Congress may regulate interstate commerce, including navigation. Ogden received a monopoly to operate his steamboat between New York and New Jersey; New York granted him the monopoly through Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston. Gibbons received the same rights through Congress. Supreme Court decided that the state monopoly was void. Use of judicial review over state law made this a devision of powers case.

Hudson River School

Group of American landscape painters. Part of an increasing American nationalism following the War of 1812. The influence of the European Romantic movement led many American artists to paint their homeland. Depicted important landscapes such as Niagara Falls, the Catskills, the Rocky Mountains, and the Hudson River Valley. Artists included Thomas Doughty, Thomas Cole, George Inness, and S.F.B. Morse.

James Fenimore Cooper

American novelist born in Burlington, New Jersey. His writing was influenced by the American frontier and America's landscapes. His works included the The Last of the Mohicans (1826), The
Water-Witch (1830), and The American Democrat (1838). His work, along with that of writers like Washington Irving, helped form the foundation for distinctive American literature.

John James Audubon

Romantic-era Artist. Member of the Hudson River School, a group of landscape painters. Demonstrated the emotion of nature, especially birds and animals. In 1886, a nature organization took his name.

"Corrupt Bargain" of 1824

Four presidential candidates: Henry Clay (Speaker of the House), John Quincy Adams (Secretary of State). Andrew Jackson (1812 war hero), and William Crawford (Secretary of the Treasury). Jackson won the popular vote but did not win the majority of the electoral vote, and as a result, the election went to the House of Representatives. In the House of Representatives vote, Henry Clay threw his support to John Quincy Adams, who would go on to win the presidency. Adams gave Clay, the post of Secretary of State. Accusations of a "corrupt bargain" were made by Jackson, but they are considered to be largely untrue.

John Quincy Adams

Sixth President. His supporters called themselves National Republicans (Jackson supporters labeled themselves Democratic-Republicans). Led an active federal government in areas like internal improvements and Native American affairs. His policies proved unpopular amidst increasing sectional interest and conflicts over states' rights. After his presidency, he served in the House of Representatives, where he forced debates against slavery and against the Jacksonian policy of removing certain Native American tribes.

"Tariff of Abominations"

Tariff bill with higher import duties for many goods bought by southern planters. John C. Calhoun, John Q. Adams's Vice President, anonymously protested his leadership's bill, suggesting that a federal law harmful to an individual state could be declared void within that state. This suggestion of nullification would be utilized by other states and would escalate hostilities, leading to the Civil War.

John Calhoun

Vice President to both John Q. Adams and to Adams's political rival Andrew Jackson, who defeated Adams in 1828. Champion of states' rights. Author of an essay, " The South Carolina Exposition and Protest," advocating nullification of Tariff of 1828 and asserting the right of the states to nullify federal laws. Later, as a senator, he engaged Senator Daniel Webster in a debate over slavery and states' rights, demonstrating the ideas that would drive the country to Civil War.

Andrew Jackson

Seventh President. Following the War of 1812, he invaded Spanish Florida to quell Native American rebellions. After the treaty for the War of 1812 had already been signed, he defeated a British force that had invaded New Orleans, safeguarding the Mississippi River. Popular president due to his image as a self-made westerner. His form of leadership, known as Jacksonian Politics, called for a strong executive, relied on the party system, and emphasized states' rights. Implemented the Spoils System approach to civil service. Signed the Indian Removal Act, which provided for federal enforcement to remove Native American tribes west of the Mississippi.

Spoils System

Andrew Jackson's method of turning over the civil servant jobs to new government officials. "Rotation in office," was supposed to democratize government and lead to reform by allowing the common people to run for the government. This system had been in place long before Jackson, but his name is tied to it because he endorsed its usage. In general officials were replaced by those loyal to the new administration, and they were not always the most qualified for the positions. Over the span of several presidential terms, the system led to corruption and inefficiency. It ended with the passage of the Pendleton Act.

Alexis de Tocqueville

French civil servant who traveled to and wrote about the United States. Wrote Democracy in America, reflecting his interest in American democratic process and appreciation of American civil society. Assessed the American attempt to have both liberty and equality. Provided an outsider's source objective view of the Age of Jackson.

Mormonism

Religion founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. Smith Claimed to have received sacred writings: he organized the Church of Jesus Christ Latter Day Saints. Smith described a vision from God in which God declared specific tenets of Christianity to be abominations. Because of these claims and unusual practices such as polygamy, Mormons were shunned. Eventually, Mormons formed a community near Great Salt Lake under Brigham Young's leadership. Settlement became the State of Utah.

Webster-Hayne Debate

Debate in the Senate between Daniel Webster (MA) and Robert Hayne (SC) that focused on sectionalism and nullification. Came after the "Tariff of Abominations" incident. At the issue was the source of constitutional authority: Was the Union derived from and agreement between states of from the people who had sought a guarantee of freedom. Webster stated, "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable.

Nat Turner

Slave who led an insurrection in Southampton, Virginia, in 1831. Influential among local slaves as a s preacher. Believed it was his destiny to lead slaves to freedom. Led approximately sixty in revolt, firt killing the family of his owner and then killing fifty-five white in the surrounding neighborhood. The revolt was put down and Turner, some of his conspirators, and several free African Americans were executed. Led to stricter slave laws in the South and and end to the Southern organizations advocating abolition.

Tariff of 1832 and the Order of Nullification

The tariff favored Northern interests at the expense of Southern ones. Calhoun led a state convention calling for the Order of Nullification, which declared that the tariff laws were void and that South Carolina would resist by force any attempt to collect the tariffs. Jackson, though a supporter of states' rights, defended the Union above all, and asked Congress to issue a new bill to give him authority to collect tariffs by force. Jackson encouraged his allies to prepare a compromise bill so that the federal government would not lose its image of control and so that South Carolina could back down from nullification. Henry Clay presented this Compromise Tariff of 1833 and South Carolina withdrew the Order, but tensions between the federal government and state government grew.

Biddle's Bank

Andrew Jackson objected to the Bank of the United States created by Alexander Hamilton. Jackson felt that the Bank had great influence in national affairs but did not respond to the will of working and rural class people. Henry Clay wanted the Bank to be a political issue for the upcoming presidential election in 1832 against Andrew Jackson. Nicholas Biddle, chairman of the Bank, worked with Clay to re-charter the Bank four years earlier than it was due. Jackson vetoed the measure, increasing his popularity.

Texas, Leading to the Battle of the Alamo

Mexico refused to sell Texas to the United States, which had given up its claims to Texas in the Adams-Onis treaty. Texas had been a state in the Republic of Mexico since 1822, following a revolution against Spain. Mexico offered land grants for immigration to the area, and many Americans responded and came to Texas, increasing population and revenue in Texas. southerners moved to Mexico with interest in becoming slave masters, but the presence of slavery angered Mexican government. When the population changed, Mexico's power began to erode. Stephen Austin worked to first make Texas a Mexican state and later independent of Mexico.

Battle of the Alamo

During Texas's revolution against Mexico, Fort Alamo was attacked by the Mexican Army and 187 members of the Texas garrison were killed. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, a Mexican military and political leader, was victorious. "Remember the Alamo" was the garrison's battle cry in its fight for independence.

Sam Houston

Leader of Texas independence. Defeated Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto and claimed independence. Houston asked both President Jackson and President Van Buren to recognize Texas as a state, which they denied out of fear that a new slave state would be formed.

Gag Rule

Forbade discussion of the slavery question in the House of Representatives. Stemmed from Southern member's fear of slave emancipation. Led to increased discussion by Southern conventions of ways to escape Northern economic and political hegemony.

The Panic of 1837 and Specie Circular

Recession caused by President Jackson's drastic movement of federal bank deposits to state and local banks. Led to relaxed credit policies and inflation. Jackson demanded a Specie Circular, which required that land be paid for in hard money and not paper of credit. Recession lasted into the 1840's.

The Charles River Bridge Case

Demonstrated that a contract could be broken to benefit the general welfare. Jackson's chief justice, Roger Taney, held that a state could cancel grant money if the grant ceased to be in the interests of the community. Served as a reversal of Dartmouth College v. Woodward.

Trail of Tears

Worcester v. Georgia was a response to Jackson's Indian Removal Act. Cherokees in Georgia claimed to be a sovereign political entity. Native Americans were supported by the Supreme Court, but Andrew Jackson refused to enforce the court's decision. By this point, Cherokees had largely met the governments demands to assimilate into Western-style democratic institutions. Still, Cherokees were forced to give up lands to the east of the Mississippi and traveled to an area in present-day Oklahoma. The migration's effects were devastating as hunger, disease, and exhaustion killed about 4,000 Cherokee.

Horace Mann

American educator who was the first secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education. Suggested reforms in education. Made available high quality, no-cost, nondenominational public schooling. This system has lasted to present day, and as a result, Mann gas been called the father of the American public schools.

Whig Party

Group stemmed from the old Federalist Party, the old National Republican Party, and others who opposed Jackson's policies. Cultivated commercial and industrial development. Encouraged banks and corporations. Had a cautious approach to westward expansion. Received support largely from the Northern Business and manufacturing interests and from large Southern planters. Included Calhoun, Clay and Webster.

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Transcendentalist essayist and lecturer. Self-Reliance (1841), one of his essays, promoted the virtue of independence. Trough the themes in his writing and through the independent lifestyle he lived, Emerson strongly influence American thought and culture

Abolitionism

Began with the idea of purchasing and transporting slaves to free states, which had little success. Anti-slavery societies founded it, and some faced violent opposition. The movement split into two: 1) radical followers and 2) those who petitioned Congress. Entered politics through the Liberty Party, calling for non-expansion of slavery into new western territories. The Liberty Party would eventually combine with the larger Free Soil Party.

William Lloyd Garrison

His newspaper, The Liberator, espoused his views that slaves should be immediately emancipated. Many other anti-slavery advocates of the 1830's and 1840's recommended a gradualist approach. Because of his inflexible position and the fiery language he used in his paper, opposition to his policy developed within abolitionist groups. Garrison also advocated an unpopular position in favor of equal rights for women. After the Civil War, he promoted free trade, suffrage for women, and fair treatment for Native Americans.

Frederick Douglass

An escaped slave and outspoken abolitionist. Escaped from his Maryland owner and published his own newspaper, the North Star. Favored the use of political methods of reform. In the Civil War, he helped put together regiments of African Americans from Massachusetts and urged others to join the Union army. Known as the father of the American Civil rights movements.

Population Growth and Change, Early 1800s

Labor shortage meant more opportunity for work. Influx of immigration included German skilled labor and Irish Catholics, who faced discrimination. Growing population in the West and in rural areas. Urbanization outgrew public services, leading to inadequate security and clean water for city dwellers.

Women in the Early 1800s

Women participated in limited political activity that was mostly religious in nature, such as abolition. Employment was limited mostly to schoolteaching. They still lived in a "cult of domesticity," in which a woman's role in marriage was to maintain the home for her husband and to raise the children. A woman's property became her husband's. In future years, the women's rights movement would rise to confront this "cult of domesticity."

Martin Van Buren

Eight President. Democrat from New York who had served as Jackson's vice president after Calhoun left the position. Established the independent treasury, a system maintaining government funds independently of the national banking systems; it existed in one form or another until 1921. Panic of 1837 hampered attempts to follow Jackson's policies, and he was unsuccessful in re-election.

William Henry Harrison

Ninth President. A westerner who fought against Native Americans. Nicknamed "Old Tippecanoe." Vice President was John Tyler. Harrison died of pneumonia a month after inauguration.

John Tyler

Tenth President. Took office following the death of William Henry Harrison. States' righter, Southerner, and strict constructionist. Rejected the programs of the Whigs who had elected Harrison, which led them to turn against him. Settled Webster-Ashburton Treaty between the United States and Britain. Helped Texas Achieve statehood in 1845.

U.S.-British Tension and Webster-Ashburton Treaty

American ship was burned by canadian loyalists. Canada and the United States disputed the boundary of Maine. British ships sometimes stopped American ships to suppress American slave smuggling. The treaty settled the boundary of Maine and border disputes in the Great Lakes. Created more cooperation between the United States and Britain in curbing the slave trade.

Irish and German Immigration

The 1840s saw a dramatic increase in Irish immigration due to the potato famine in Ireland. The poverty of the Irish immigrants led to settlement in eastern cities and competition for jobs. The 1850s had increases in German immigration because of the failed revolution in 1848. Many Germans settled in Wisconsin because they had money and other resources, which helped to cultivate the upper-midwest portion of the United States.

Manifest Destiny

Belief that America was destined to expand to the Pacific, and possibly into Canada and Mexico. john O'Sullivan, and American Journalist, wrote an article pushing for the annexation of Texas and coined the phrase "Manifest Destiny." Came out of post-1812 War nationalism, the reform impulse of the 1830s, and the need for new resources. Those Whigs who supported Manifest Destiny favored more peaceful means, while other Whigs feared American expansion because it might raise the slavery issue in new territories. Manifest Destiny was an engine of both discovery and destruction; while it helped America push westward, the ideas behind Manifest Destiny fueled the Mexican War and the displacement of Native Americans.

Transportation in the 1840s and 1850s

Tremendous expansion of railroad lines created a national market for goods. Railroads, such as the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, were developed to help link the Midwest to the East Coast. Steamboats and clipper ships became more popular for travel.

Four Economic Classes in the South

Planters: Owned large farms and groups of slaves, and exercised political and economic control with cotton exports. Yeoman: The Largest group, yeoman worked land independently, sometimes along with slaves, to produce their own foods, like corn. Poor Whites: Lived in squalor that was often as bad as that of the slaves. Slaves: Worked the land; it is noteworthy that three-fourths of whites in the South did not own slaves.

Slave Labor Roles

One large farms, white overseers directed African American drivers who supervised groups in the fields as they performed gang labor. On smaller farms, a slave was assigned specific tasks and then given the remainder of the day to himself. House servants were spared physical labor, but they enjoyed less privacy and had direct responsibility to the master.

Slaves in Southern Urban Areas

Slaves served as factory workers or as construction laborers. Some purchased their freedom with their savings or disappeared into society. As sectional troubles rose, fewer slaves were able to buy freedom or work in urban areas.

Elements of Slavery

Slaves suffered varying degrees of repression, although most received adequate housing and diet. Slaves did commit some violent uprisings. Many slaves tried to run away into bordering free states. Injustice created quiet revolt as slaves sabotaged their facilities, found ways to become unproductive for their masters, and ridiculed their owners. Despite their repression, slaves created their owen common culture.

Southern Response to Slavery

Defense of slavery shifted from an early view of slavery as a "necessary evil" (1790) to a "positive good" (after 1840). Used scientific arguments, biblical texts, and historical examples to justify slavery. As time passed, this defensive position and abolitionist sentiment increased in fervor. Some Southerners, like George Fitzhugh, a Virginia lawyer, defended slavery by condemning Northern "wage slavery"; he used the idea of African American inferiority to suggest that whites were protecting slaves from a world of fierce competition in which, on their own, they would no survive.

The Underground Railroad and Harriet Tubman

Method used to move slaves to free territory in the United Stats and Canada. Harriet Tubman was a slave smuggler and "conductor" of the Underground Railroad. A freed slave herself, Tubman led over 300 to freedom. The Underground Railroad led to tension between states.

James K. Polk

Eleventh President. "Dark Horse" Democratic candidate who became president. Bug believer in Manifest Destiny and expansionism. Nickname "Polk the Purposeful" for his focus on a set of specific goals during his presidency. Introduced a new independent treasury system, Lowered the high rates of tariffs with the Walker Tariff. Settled Oregon boundary dispute with the Oregon Treaty (Treaty of Washington-18460 at forty-ninth parallel rather than fifty-four forty. Acquired California. He led the United States into the Mexican War.

Causes of Mexican War

The new Mexican republic would not address grievances of United States citizens, who claimed property losses and personal injuries resulting from conflicts during the Mexican Revolution. Mexico and the United States were in a dispute over their border, with the United States saying it was the Rio Grande and Mexico insisting it was the Nueces River. Due to sentiment arising from the idea of Manifest Destiny, there was an increased American interest in Mexican-held Western territory. The United States had aided Texas in its revolt against the Mexican government and there was a growing momentum toward a United States annexation of Texas. When the United States Congress annexed Texas, Polk sent John Slidell to negotiate a settlement for that land, for California, and for western Mexico territory; the Mexican government rejected Slidell.

Mexican War

John C. Fremont (United States) won attacks on land and at sea in and near California. Zachary Taylor defeated large forces in Mexico. Mexico refused to negotiate, so President Polk ordered forces led by Winfield Scott into Mexico City. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 ended the war, giving the United States land originally sought by Slidell (New Mexico, Arizona, California, Texas, and Part of Colorado, Utah and Nevada). Border was set at Rio Grande River. Raised questions of slavery in the new territory. Henry David Thoreau and a young Whig, Abraham Lincoln, opposed the war.

Wilmont Proviso

Amendment to a Mexican War appropriation bill. Proposed that slavery could not exist in any territory that might be acquired from Mexico. The amendment was passed in the U.S. House of Representatives several times, but it was ultimately defeated on each occasion because the South had greater power in the senate. Represented the looming question of slavery's future, which would be decided in the Civil War.

Popular Sovereignty

Doctrine under which the status of slavery in the territories was to be determined by the settlers themselves. Doctrine was first put forward by General Lewis Cass. Promoted by Stephen A Douglas. Meant as a resolution to the looming crisis of the slavery question.

Free Soil/Free Labor

An anti-slavery idead that was less opposed to the institution of slavery than it was to the extension of slavery into the United States' Western territories. Supporters wanted land to be available for white people to settle and to become financially independent without competition from slavery. Free Soil Party created in 1848, drawing from anti-slavery Whigs and Former Liberty Party members. Opposed extension of slavery into new territories, supported national improvement programs, and promoted small tariffs to help raise revenue. Zachary Taylor defeated Free Soil candidate Martin Van Buren for president in 1848. Free Soil was mostly taken over by the Republicans in 1854.

Mexican Cession and Slavery

Argument existed about slavery in the newly acquired Mexican Cession. States-righters believed that the territory was the property of all states and that the federal government had no right to prohibit property ownership in territories. Many anti-slavery and federal government supporters contended that Congress had the power to make laws for the territories. Argument in favor of federal power was based on the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and the Missouri Compromise of 1820.

Gold Rush

Miners who rushed to California after the discovery of gold were called "Forty Niners." Over 80,000 prospectors "rushed" to San Francisco. The increased population led to California joining the Union as a free state. Connected to the idea of Manifest Destiny.

Zachary Taylor

Twelfth President. Famous general in the Mexican War. Whig President. Opposed the spread of slavery. Encouraged territories to organize and seek admission directly as states to avoid the issue of slavery. Died suddenly in 1850 and was replaced by Millard Fillmore.

Industry by 1850

Mostly located in the North. Industry's value surpassed agriculture. United States technology exceeded Europe in such areas and rubber, coal power, mass production, and the telegraph. Cheap immigrant labor threatened the established workers' jobs.

Agriculture by 1850

Agricultural technology increased haverst sizes, saved on labor, and made selling farm goods to international markets possible. Demand for agricultural land grew. Railroad was used to help transport goods. John Deere, and American manufacturer, pioneered the steel-plow industry. Cyrus McCormack invented the mechanical reaper.

African Americans in the North

Organized churches and groups. 200,000 free African Americans lived in the North and West, although their lives were restricted by prejudicial laws. Immigration and new sources of labor for employers threatened the economic security of northern African Americans.

The North, 1850

Wages were increasing and the economy was growing. Railroad competition began to harm the canal business. Large numbers of Irish and Germans Immigrated to the United States. Urbanization increased as the population grew, bringing problems such as slums, impure water, rats, and foul sewage.

The South, 1850

Plantation system: Cash crops grown by slave labor. Agrarian slave labor was more profitable than using slaves in factories. Capital funds were tied up in land and slaves, so little was left for investing in new growth or industry. Value system put emphasis on leisure and elegance. Unlike the North, the South remained agrarian and its population was less dense. Due to the rude of cotton, the influence of the Gulf States in the South grew. Cotton became the largest export of the United States. Slave importation continued through the 1850s into southwestern states, despite the federal outlaw. Few immigrants went to the South.

Stephen Douglas

Senator from Illinois dubbed the "Little Giant." Was an expansionist and a supporter of the Mexican War. Broke the Compromise of 1850 into smaller, more acceptable pieces of legislation and pushed it through using carious allies in Congress. Introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854. During a Senate campaign in 1858, participated in debates against Abraham Lincoln (dubbed the Lincoln-Douglas debates). He believed popular sovereignty was the appropriate way to handle the slavery question.

Compromise of 1850 (Omnibus Bill)

Proposed by Henry Clay and handled by Stephen Douglas. Douglas broke the legislation into various pieces, which helped assure its passage; this allowed northern and southern legislators to vote against just parts they didn't like. The Compromise led to sectional harmony for several years. California admitted as a free state. New Mexico and Utah territories would be decided by popular sovereignty. Slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia. Tough Fugitive Slave Act passed. Federal payment to Texas ($10 million) for lost New Mexico territory.

Fugitive Slave Act

Part of the compromise of 1850. This new Act reinvigorated enforcement of some guidelines that had already been established in the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, which had been mostly ignored by Northern states. Created federal commissioners who could pursue fugitive slaves in any state and paid $10 per returned slave. African Americans living in the North and claimed by slave catchers were denied portions of their legal due process. Some Northern states passed personal-liberty laws that contradicted the Act. Led to small riots in the North and increased the rift between the North and South.

Millard Fillmore

Thirteenth President. Became president after Zachary Taylor died. As a congressman, he revealed his opposition to both the expansion and slavery and various abolitionist activities, driving away supporters. Supported the Compromise of 1850. Failed to obtain a nomination in 1852, but was nominated by both the Whigs and the Know-Nothing movement in 1856.

Know-Nothings

A political Movement that supported Americans and American ideals over what it saw as the influence of immigrants. Also grew power from those dissatisfied with the perceived unresponsiveness of local leadership. Influence by German and Irish Catholic immigration during the period; Know-Nothings suspected the immigrants of anti-Americanism and feared the influence of the Pope of Rome. The name of the movement came from its roots in secrecy; in its early days, members were supposed to answer that they did not know about the organization if asked by outsiders. The movement grew in size and political representation in 1854 and 1855, but it was split by the slavery issue, and most members joined the Republican Party by the 1860 presidential election.

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Worked with the Grimke sisters, Elizabeth Stanton, and other leaders to pursue activist goals. Early activist in the feminist movement and author of Uncle Tom's Cabin (1851), a novel critical of slavery. Uncle Tom's Cabin was denounced in the South and praised in the North; it turned many toward active opposition to slavery and helped bolster sympathy for abolition by Europeans who read it.

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