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Flashcards to prepare for visual arts CST, NYSTCE

Geometric Art (Greece)

9th - 8th Century B.C.
Pottery ornamented with geometric banding, friezes of simple animals, humans

Hellenistic Art (Greece)

323 - 31 B.C.
Greek derived style found in Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Egypt
More melodramatic than Classical style

Japanese woodblock printing

Flat, bright colored prints
Contrast, linear patterns
Cropped compositions, single point perspective
ukiyo-e prints - floating world (brothels, red light district)

Waste Molding

Can only be used once
Plaster mold
Best for large scale sculpture

Steps: (1) coat original in vaseline or resist, section off with lines
(2) Coat with plaster mix in several layers
(3) Mother mold, cut based on sections
(4) Original is destroyed, fill mold with material

Baroque

"The Ornate Age" - mid 16th - 18th century (1600 - 1750)
Sensitivity/Mastery of light for emotional impact
Roman Catholic Church - dramatic style - power and control
Caravaggio, Bernini, Rembrandt, Velazquez

Cubism

Analytic (1st phase) to Synthetic (2nd - collage)
Natural forms changed by geometrical reduction
Early 20th century
Many views of one subject
Picasso, Braque, Leger

Art Nouveau

1890s
Decorative style - forms based on objects found in nature
Gaudi (Barcelona, Spain)
Aubrey Beardsley - erotic illustration, based on Japanese prints

Baldacchino

Ornamental canopy over an altar (church)

S Curve

Ancient Greek and Roman sculpture
Extension of contrapposto

Contrapposto

Italian "counterpose"
Weight shift on one foot

Bauhaus

Walter Gropius
Functional and aesthetically pleasing
Mass produced for society
20th century

Abstract Expressionism

New York 1940s painting movement
Non-representational
Action Painting
(deKooning, Pollock, Kline, etc)

Armory Show

1913 exhibition, New York
introduced Modernism (Paris) to America
Marcel Duchamp - Nude Descending a Staircase (II), 1912 - beginning of Cubism

Art Deco

Applied design, 1920s - 30s
Derived from French, African, Aztec, Chinese motifs
Architecture and crafts

Romanticism

1800-50 Age of Sensibility
Emotion, intuition, imagination
Gericault, Raft of Medusa
Delacroix
Legends, exotica, nature, violence

Hudson River School

America's first native school for painting
Thomas Cole, founder (1801 - 48)
Landscapes untouched, nature as religious experience (Eden/Paradise) - Thoreau, Emerson

Gothic

Stained glass, more natural sculpture
Pointed-arch cathedral
Chartres, France
1194 - 1260

Fauvism

1904 - 1908
Intense, bright colors
First major avant-garde movement
Emotional response
Refusal to imitate nature and discovery of non-European tribal arts
Inspired by post-Impressionists
Matisse, Derain, Roualt, Braque, Dufy

Tilted Arc

Richard Serra, 1981, steel
installed at Federal Plaza, NY
Created a divide between pedestrians and the plaza - had to walk around it
Removed in 1989 - Visual Artist Right Act (VARA)

Byzantine

Stylized religious art
Eastern Roman Empire, 532-37 Constantinople, Turkey
Mosaics, icons
Central Dome Church - Hagia Sophia

Romanesque

a style of architecture developed in Italy and western Europe between the Roman and the Gothic styles after 1000 AD
Frescoes, stylized sculpture, barrel-vaulted church
St. Sernin

Futurism

Italian art movement around 1910 that tried to express the energy and values of the machine age
rapid movement of machinery
combined bright "fauve" colors with fractured Cubist planes to express propulsion
Boccioni

Constructivism

Russian artists who wished to reflect modern machinery and technology working - geometric
aim to "construct art" - used industrial materials
1913-1932
Tatlin - "Model for the Monument for the Third International"
Other artists: Malevich, Rodchenko, Lissitzky

Persistence of Memory

Dali, 1931. Spanish Surrealist. Oil on canvas
"Hard" and "soft" objects (reality vs. dream, time passing)

Acrylic Mediums and Gels

Range in consistency and thickness
Used to manipulate acrylic paint

Intaglio

Etching onto metal plates
Recessed areas filled with ink
Aquatint, mezzotint

Oiling out

Bring back sunken patches of an oil painting using stand oil and/or mineral spirits

Hollow Casting

A method of casting metal, such as bronze, by a process in which a wax mold is covered with clay and plaster, then fired, melting the wax and leaving a hollow form
Thickness of material varies
Usually used for ornamental objects
AKA Slush Casting

Lost Wax Process

metal casting method, figure is modeled in wax and covered with clay, molten metal is poured where wax once was
mold is destroyed to cast item!

impasto

Thick application of paint
Textured, almost three-dimensional

drypoint etching

Intaglio technique
Use a needle/sharp point to directly draw onto the plate (no acid bath)

Relief Printing

Printmaking process
Recessed areas become negative space
Process by removal
Woodcut, linoleum printing

Encaustic

Pigment mixed with wax and resin, hot mixture then painted onto surface

Chiaroscuro

The treatment of light and shade in a work of art, to create focal point or mood

Batik

dyed textile or paper that has a wax resist pattern applied with molten wax

Bas-relief

low relief sculpture that projects slightly from background

Celtic Art

Produced by the Celts 450 BC - 700 AD
Mostly portable objects
ornamental, patterns, curvelinear forms

Impressionism

Focus on changing of light, color, and movement
19th century art movement
revered Manet for his independence
Subject matter - outdoors, seaside, Parisian streets and cafes
Artists -Monet, Renoir, Degas, Cassatt

monochromatic

single hue with different values
creates unity

elements of art

line, texture, color, shape / form, value, space

Principles of Design

Repetition, Contrast, Unity, Balance, Emphasis

Annealer

Final furnace in glass blowing process
Used to slowly decrease temperature of glass over a period of a few hours to prevent cracking
Does not require ventilation

Burin

Metal instrument with sharp point used to incise designs on metal plates and other surfaces (intaglio)

kaolin

major ingredient in porcelain

armature

framework around which the sculpture is built
made with wire usually
for clay - paper or wood

gesso

white paint mixture
primes surfaces for painting

earthenware

low-fire clay
porous and soft
most commonly found clay in nature
low shrinkage

Cones (in kiln)

used to indicate temperature range within kiln (heat-work range)
Numbers with '0' are lower than those don't have '0' in front (i.e. 018 < 1)
indicated with a ^

bisque firing

changes clay to ceramic before fully fusing it
usually used before a glaze, then fired again to melt glaze
brought to temperature slowly (electric kiln preferred)

grog

added to clay
prevents cracking and warping during firing
aggregate of pre-fired, crushed clay particles

stoneware

high fire clay
industrial ceramics
functional (i.e. dinnerware)
hard, dense, bonds well with glazes

porcelain

made of 'kaolin'
high fire clay
light in color (white, grey unfired)
non-plastic, warps in kiln sometimes

wedges (painting)

fits into slots on inside of each corner of stretcher
if canvas sags, wedges can be driven in further with a hammer to expand corners

silverpoint

technique popular during Medieval and Renaissance
fine line drawing technique
silver rod or wire across a surface
Albrecht Durer

Entasis

Curve along the tapering lines of a column

Mannerism

Late Renissance
Abandons realism, symmetry, central focus point
End of Rome - the Reformation (religion in flux)
Bodies contort, colors lurid, tension, movement, and unreal lighting
Pontormo, Rosso, Bronzino

Navaho

the largest Indian tribe in the United States today; famous for their beautiful woven rags and silver jewelry
Southwestern Tribe
Geometric design rugs with herbal and mineral dyes
Sand painting to heal disease, promote fertility, assure successful hunt
Using natural materials - powdered rock, corn pollen, charcoal

Neoclassicism

1780-1820 Age of Reason
Greek and Roman revival
Jacques-Louis David (Death of Marat, Oath of the Horatii)
Calm, rational / Order, solemnity

Der Blue Reiter

- expressionist group began in munich 1911
- The Blue Rider
artists involved: Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee
- expression of emotions
- refined art as an object without subject matter but with perceptual properties that were able to convey feelings

Mayan Art

- Stepped pyramid temples
- Limestone with relief sculpture and hieroglyphics
- Guatemala, Mexico
- Sophisticated calendar, knowledge of Astronomy
Ended at 900 AD

Aztec Art

- Capital was Mexico City
- Massive statues of gods - regular human sacrifice
- Skilled in gold work
- Came after the Mayans

Kwakiutl

Northwest coast tribe
Totem poles, masks, and decorated houses and canoes
Facial features exaggerated in wood carving
Mortuary poles and totem poles indicate social status

Hopi

Carved and painted Kachina dolls (out of cottonwood roots) to represent gods and teach religion
Kiras - ceremonial underground spaces with elaborate moral painting of agricultural deities

Expressionism

Painting of feelings, often abstract
Modernist movement
Grew out of the dehumanizing effect of industrialization and cities

Guernica

Pablo Picasso, 1937, mural painting with oil
Black and white contrast with intensity of subject matter
Anti-war - Nazi Germany bombing of Guernica in 1937 (Spanish Civil War)
Cubism

Artemesia Gentileschi

1593-1653
Student of Caravaggio
First woman painter to be widely known, appreciated

Frank Stella

1960's, 70's
Painting as self sufficient object
Interest in mechanical drawing/painting
Minimalism, Ab-ex

Nighthawks

Edward Hopper, 1942
Oil on canvas
"Big city" loneliness, American

Kitagawa Utamaro, Mother and Child

1790 (Edo period - 1615-1868)
Polychrome woodblock print
Reflects interest in the individual
Part of series "women's daily customs"

Les Demoiselles de Avignon

Pablo Picasso, 1907, oil on canvas
Early development of cubism, modernism
Abandoned perspective, influence of African Art (Primitivism)?

Die Brucke (The Bridge)

German Expressionists from Dresden
Founded by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
c. 1905 - 1913
Emil Nolde
Revival of wood cut prints, linocuts

chasing

steel punches used to decorate or creature texture in a metal surface
hammering from front rather than punching from behind

Alla Prima

Wet-on-wet oil painting

pochade

small preparatory oil sketch before actual painting

liquid latex molding

"glove mold" - best for concrete or plaster - needs a "mother mold"
1. Brush on layers of latex
2. Peel off mold
3. Support stand for mold (mother)
4. Cast

Archaic Art (Greece)

600-480 BC
Kuoros stone figures
Vase painting

Kuoros / Kore (Greek Art)

Kuoros - Male Nude, Kore - Female Clothed Maiden
Frontal stance, clenched fists
"The Archaic Smile"
Left foot forward

Classical Art (Greece)

480 - 323 BC
Peak of Greek Art and Architecture
Idealized figures of/exemplify order and harmony
"Sever Style" - early classical. Reserved/remote expression

Sgraffito

scratching through one layer of color to reveal another

plaster

Dry powder mixed with water
Often used for casting (molds) and fresco painting
1 quart water to 5 lbs powder

Video color bars

recorded at head of videotape as reference for post production
matching camera output (multiple)
to set up video monitor

lithography

Printmaking technique - traditionally with stone
Oil/greasy - adheres to the ink (water resist) to print positive image!

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