Chapter 26: Bacteria and Archaea: The Prokaryotic Domains

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Life: The Science of Biology

e. An immune system

1. Which of the following is not a basic feature of a prokaryotic cell?
a. DNA
b. RNA
c. Enzymes for transcription and translation
d. A system for generating ATP
e. An immune system

e. Membrane-enclosed organelles

2. Which of the following is not a characteristic of prokaryotic cells?
a. A membrane-enclosed nucleus
b. A photosynthetic membrane system
c. Peptidoglycan
d. Circular DNA
e. Membrane-enclosed organelles

b. A system for generating ATP

3. Which of the following is found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
a. Membrane-enclosed organelles
b. A system for generating ATP
c. A nucleus
d. Chromatin
e. Histones

a. Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.

4. The domains of life are
a. Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
b. Bacteria, Fungi, Plants, and Animals.
c. Bacteria, Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals.
d. Plants and Animals.
e. None of the above

c. eukaryotes.

5. Archaea is the closest sister group to the
a. bacteria.
b. bacteria and eukaryotes.
c. eukaryotes.
d. prokaryotes.
e. None of the above

Answer: e

6. Which of the following statements about Archaea is false?
a. They live in harsh environments.
b. Their cell walls lack peptidoglycan.
c. They are unlike most bacteria.
d. There are similarities in their base sequences of ribosomal RNAs.
e. They are a recently evolved group.

b. Eukarya and Archaea.

7. The closest monophyletic group(s) to the domain Bacteria is (are)
a. Eukarya.
b. Eukarya and Archaea.
c. Archaea.
d. Bacteria and Eukarya.
e. Prokaryotes.

d. Eukarya; Archaea; Bacteria

8. _______ are more closely related to _______ than they are to _______.
a. Bacteria; Archaea; Eukarya
b. Bacteria; Eukarya; Archaea
c. Archaea; Bacteria; Eukarya
d. Eukarya; Archaea; Bacteria
e. Eukarya; Bacteria; Archaea

c. DNA as the genetic material that encodes for proteins.

9. The common ancestry (monophyly) of the three domains (Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya) is confirmed by
a. the similar appearances of different organisms.
b. ample fossil evidence.
c. DNA as the genetic material that encodes for proteins.
d. None of the above
e. All of the above

b. a circular chromosome.

10. The common ancestor of all three domains of life probably had
a. membrane-bound organelles.
b. a circular chromosome.
c. a Golgi apparatus.
d. operons.
e. a nucleus.

d. 3.5 billion

11. The earliest prokaryotic fossils date back at least _______ years.
a. 35,000
b. 350,000
c. 3.5 million
d. 3.5 billion
e. 3.5 trillion

b. include Escherichia coli as well as many human pathogens.

12. Gram-negative rods
a. are all closely related.
b. include Escherichia coli as well as many human pathogens.
c. can reproduce only within the cells of other organisms.
d. all possess structures called axial filaments.
e. include the important genera Bacillus and Clostridium.

a. Bacteria.

13. Peptidoglycan is a unique feature of the
a. Bacteria.
b. Bacteria and Eukarya.
c. Eukarya.
d. Prokaryota.
e. None of the above

b. They have peptidoglycan in their cell walls.

14. Which of the following statements about Archaea is false?
a. They include some species that live in environments with extreme salinity and low oxygen.
b. They have peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
c. Their rRNA differs as much from Bacteria's DNA as it does from Eukarya's DNA.
d. They include some species that are obligate anaerobes, which produce all the methane in the atmosphere.
e. They include some species that love heat and acid and may die of "cold" at 55ºC (131ºF).

a. Gram-positive bacteria have a lot of peptidoglycan in their cell walls and stain blue to purple.

15. Which of the following statements about bacteria is true?
a. Gram-positive bacteria have a lot of peptidoglycan in their cell walls and stain blue to purple.
b. Gram-positive bacteria have relatively little peptidoglycan in their cell walls and stain pink to red.
c. Gram-positive bacteria weigh more than a gram.
d. Gram-positive bacteria weigh more than a milligram.
e. Gram-negative bacteria have no peptidoglycan in their cell walls.

c. have cell walls with at least some peptidoglycan.

16. The Gram method is useful for classifying all bacteria that
a. have two plasma membranes.
b. have cell walls.
c. have cell walls with at least some peptidoglycan.
d. are prokaryotic.
e. form endospores.

a. periplasmic

17. The space between the outer membrane and the plasma membrane of a Gram-negative bacterium is called the _______ space.
a. periplasmic
b. negative
c. perimembrane
d. enzymatic
e. resistance

b. antibiotics.

18. Synthesis of peptidoglycan-containing cell walls is affected by
a. archaea.
b. antibiotics.
c. bacteria.
d. high toxigenicity.
e. Gram stains.

a. flagella, gas vesicles, and rolling.

19. Bacteria move by means of
a. flagella, gas vesicles, and rolling.
b. flagella, cilia, and axial filaments.
c. axial filaments, rolling, and pseudopods.
d. cilia, pseudopods, and axial filaments.
e. pseudopods, flagella, and cilia.

c. are structurally unrelated to those of eukaryotes.

20. The flagella of prokaryotes
a. are structurally related to those of eukaryotes.
b. are similar to cilia.
c. are structurally unrelated to those of eukaryotes.
d. operate the same way as those of spermatozoa.
e. a, b, and d

e. All of the above

21. Bacteria may differ from one another in
a. structure.
b. metabolism.
c. life cycle.
d. Both a and c
e. All of the above

a. 10 minutes; 100 years

22. The range of time between cell divisions for different bacteria in a vegetative state is from _______ to _______.
a. 10 minutes; 100 years
b. 1 minute; 60 minutes
c. 10 minutes; 60 minutes
d. 20 minutes; 120 minutes
e. 1 minute; 1,000 years

c. asexually, and exchange genetic information by transformation, conjugation, and transduction.

23. Bacteria reproduce
a. only asexually.
b. only sexually.
c. asexually, and exchange genetic information by transformation, conjugation, and transduction.
d. following mitosis.
e. Both a and d

c. oxidize inorganic substances for energy and use carbon dioxide for carbon.

24. An ecosystem based on chemolithotrophs exists 2,500 meters below the ocean surface near the Galápagos Islands. These archaea
a. use light as energy and carbon dioxide for carbon.
b. use light as energy and get organic compounds from other organisms.
c. oxidize inorganic substances for energy and use carbon dioxide for carbon.
d. get both energy and carbon from organic compounds.
e. oxidize organic compounds for energy and use carbon dioxide for carbon.

c. Chemolithotrophs

25. Which of the following is a broad nutritional category of prokaryotes that is recognized by biologists?
a. Physioautotrophs
b. Heteroautotrophs
c. Chemolithotrophs
d. Both a and b
e. Both a and c

a. photoautotrophs.

26. In light, purple sulfur bacteria use H2S as an electron donor and release pure sulfur as a waste product. They are examples of
a. photoautotrophs.
b. photoheterotrophs.
c. chemolithotrophs.
d. chemoheterotrophs.
e. deep-sea, volcanic vent bacteria.

a. Photoautotrophs

27. Which of the following nutritional categories of bacteria can exist independently of other organisms?
a. Photoautotrophs
b. Photoheterotrophs
c. Photochemotrophs
d. Chemoheterotrophs
e. None of the above

d. chemoheterotrophs.

28. The majority of bacteria are
a. photoautotrophs.
b. photoheterotrophs.
c. chemolithotrophs.
d. chemoheterotrophs.
e. disease-causing.

e. Multiple genes

29. Before they had the ability to decipher nucleotide sequences, biologists classified prokaryotes based on several characteristics. Which of the following was not one of these characteristics?
a. Nutritional requirements
b. Phenotypic characteristics like shape or color
c. Sensitivity to antibiotics
d. Modes of locomotion
e. Multiple genes

b. that certain nucleic acid sequences are unique to archaea and eukarya.

30. The sequencing of rRNA allowed scientists to understand
a. the clear relationships among different prokaryotic species.
b. that certain nucleic acid sequences are unique to archaea and eukarya.
c. that archaea are similar to bacteria.
d. that all DNA is relatively the same.
e. that half of the sequences of archaea were previously unknown.

e. All are motivations for the classification of biological organisms.

31. Which one of the following is not a motivation for the classification of biological organisms?
a. To provide universal names
b. To show evolutionary affinity
c. To facilitate identification
d. To display diversity
e. All are motivations for the classification of biological organisms.

c. prokaryotes acquire DNA from a different species.

32. Lateral gene transfer is the process by which
a. scientists make transgenic organisms.
b. prokaryotes within a species exchange genes.
c. prokaryotes acquire DNA from a different species.
d. genes are passed to daughter cells.
e. None of the above

a. rRNA undergoes a high degree of lateral transfer.

33. Which of the following is not a reason that ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is useful for studying the evolutionary relationships among living organisms?
a. rRNA undergoes a high degree of lateral transfer.
b. No free living organism lacks rRNA.
c. rRNA plays a critical role in the translation process in all organisms.
d. rRNA evolves slowly, so it can be analyzed across a wide range of organisms.
e. rRNA is evolutionarily ancient and was present in the common ancestor of all life forms.

c. There is a high degree of lateral gene transfer in prokaryotes.

34. How are prokaryote phylogenies different from mammal phylogenies?
a. There is a high degree of lateral gene transfer in mammals.
b. Mammal phylogenies are constructed from evidence based in DNA, whereas prokaryote phylogenies are based in RNA.
c. There is a high degree of lateral gene transfer in prokaryotes.
d. The phylogenetic reconstruction process is much simpler for prokaryotes because they are much smaller.
e. None of the above

d. Both a and b

35. Genes that are likely to undergo lateral transfer are those that
a. are involved in antibiotic resistance.
b. confer a fitness advantage to the recipient.
c. are highly conserved and involved in DNA replication.
d. Both a and b
e. Both b and c

b. a cladogram that summarizes evolutionary relationships between organisms using data from multiple different gene sequences.

36. A consensus tree consists of
a. a cladogram based on morphological characteristics only.
b. a cladogram that summarizes evolutionary relationships between organisms using data from multiple different gene sequences.
c. a cladogram showing lateral gene transfer for a single gene.
d. the evolutionary relationship between organisms based on a single DNA sequence.
e. None of the above

b. Spirochetes

37. These bacteria use axial filaments to move and include the bacterium that causes syphilis.
a. Cyanobacteria
b. Spirochetes
c. Chlamydia
d. Gram-negative rods
e. Actinobacteria
f. Mycoplasmas

e. Actinobacteria

38. These Gram-positive bacteria form mycelia-like chains of cells. They include those bacteria that cause tuberculosis and those that produce streptomycin. Most antibiotics come from bacteria in this group.
a. Cyanobacteria
b. Spirochetes
c. Chlamydia
d. Gram-negative rods
e. Actinobacteria
f. Mycoplasmas

a. Cyanobacteria

39. These bacteria photosynthesize using chlorophyll a, are a homogeneous grouping with similar rRNA sequences, and contain photosynthetic lamellae.
a. Cyanobacteria
b. Spirochetes
c. Chlamydia
d. Gram-negative rods
e. Actinobacteria
f. Mycoplasmas

c. Chlamydia

40. These bacteria are small intracellular parasites that have a unique, complex reproductive cycle and include strains that cause eye infections and venereal disease.
a. Cyanobacteria
b. Spirochetes
c. Chlamydia
d. Gram-negative rods
e. Actinobacteria
f. Mycoplasmas

d. Gram-negative rods

41. These bacteria are not a monophyletic group.
a. Cyanobacteria
b. Spirochetes
c. Chlamydia
d. Gram-negative rods
e. Actinobacteria
f. Mycoplasmas

f. Mycoplasmas

42. These bacteria lack cell walls and are among the smallest cellular creatures. They are mostly plant and animal parasites.
a. Cyanobacteria
b. Spirochetes
c. Chlamydia
d. Gram-negative rods
e. Actinobacteria
f. Mycoplasmas

d. all possess structures called axial filaments.

43. Spirochetes
a. are all free-living.
b. are the only spiral-shaped bacteria.
c. can form chains of cells.
d. all possess structures called axial filaments.
e. are all parasites of other bacteria.

a. 0.2

44. The size of the smallest bacterium is _______ μm.
a. 0.2
b. 2
c. 7.5
d. 75
e. 750

d. can live only within the cells of other organisms.

45. Chlamydias
a. can form heterocysts.
b. form a branched, filamentous mycelium.
c. contain less DNA than any other organism.
d. can live only within the cells of other organisms.
e. were once classified as fungi.

b. are the source of many important antibiotics.

46. Actinobacteria
a. are photoheterotrophs.
b. are the source of many important antibiotics.
c. are Gram-negative bacteria.
d. were once classified as protists.
e. are the only bacteria that divide by mitosis.

b. cells specialized for nitrogen fixation.

47. Some cyanobacteria that form filamentous colonies possess heterocysts, which are
a. a means of locomotion.
b. cells specialized for nitrogen fixation.
c. resting stages.
d. endospores.
e. None of the above

a. like that of plants.

48. The chlorophyll of cyanobacteria is
a. like that of plants.
b. distinct from the chlorophyll of plants.
c. bacteriochlorophyll.
d. bacteriorhodopsin.
e. None of the above

b. use chlorophyll a and release oxygen during photosynthesis.

49. Cyanobacteria
a. are a diverse, unrelated group of bacteria.
b. use chlorophyll a and release oxygen during photosynthesis.
c. are the only group of photosynthetic bacteria.
d. can reproduce sexually.
e. are obligate aerobes.

a. Parent cells can produce more than one.

50. Which of the following statements about endospores is false?
a. Parent cells can produce more than one.
b. They can survive harsh environmental conditions.
c. They contain some cytoplasm and replicated nucleic acid.
d. They are enclosed within a tough cell wall.
e. They are a resting structure, not a reproductive structure.

b. Proteobacteria

51. Which of the following bacterial groups includes the greatest number of species?
a. Chlamydias
b. Proteobacteria
c. Actinobacteria
d. Mycoplasmas
e. Cyanobacteria

a. contain less DNA than most other prokaryotes do.

52. Mycoplasmas
a. contain less DNA than most other prokaryotes do.
b. have peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
c. form a branched, filamentous mycelium.
d. possess elaborate internal membrane systems.
e. can be controlled by penicillin.

e. All of the above

53. Which of the following characteristics or components is (are) distinctive to archaea?
a. Unique genes not found in other domains
b. Branched, long-chain hydrocarbons
c. A lack of peptidoglycan
d. Lipids with glycerol-ether linkages
e. All of the above

d. Hot sulfur springs

54. Which of the following areas or conditions would be favored by thermoacidophiles?
a. The stomachs of many herbivores
b. Hot, alkaline springs
c. Anaerobic conditions
d. Hot sulfur springs
e. Deep-sea volcanic vents

d. Both a and b

55. If you were looking for a new heat-tolerant DNA polymerase enzyme, you would investigate
a. thermoacidophiles.
b. methanogens.
c. strict halophiles.
d. Both a and b
e. All of the above

a. Methane is their preferred carbon source.

56. Which of the following statements about methanogens is false?
a. Methane is their preferred carbon source.
b. They are associated with mammalian flatulence.
c. They prefer anaerobic conditions.
d. Some are thermophilic.
e. Some live in volcanic vents on the ocean floor.

b. CO2.

57. Prokaryotes, along with fungi, return tremendous quantities of organic carbon to the atmosphere as
a. ATP.
b. CO2.
c. photosynthesis.
d. evolution.
e. nitrogen gas.

e. All of the above

58. Bacteria participate in
a. digestion in animals.
b. processing nitrogen and sulfur in soils.
c. decomposition in all ecosystems.
d. many industrial and commercial processes.
e. All of the above

d. high; low

59. One factor that determines the consequences of a bacterial infection for the host is the ability of the bacterium to produce chemical substances injurious to the host's tissues. The anthrax-causing bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, produces few toxins. However, it can multiply readily and ultimately it invades the entire bloodstream. Such a bacterium, therefore, has qualities of _______ invasiveness and _______ toxigenicity.
a. low; high
b. high; high
c. low; low
d. high; low
e. moderate; moderate

a. Pathogen

60. Bacteria are known for the many roles they play in biological communities. Which of the following is the rarest role for this group of organisms?
a. Pathogen
b. Digestive aid
c. Nitrogen and sulfur processor in soils
d. Decomposer
e. Industry and agricultural use

e. The microorganism can be transmitted by insect vectors.

61. Which of the following is not one of Koch's postulates?
a. The microorganism is always found in the diseased individual.
b. The microorganism taken from the diseased host can be grown in pure culture.
c. A sample of the pure culture of the microorganism produces the disease when it is injected into an uninfected host.
d. A host infected by injection from the cultured microorganism yields a new culture of the microorganism identical to the original culture.
e. The microorganism can be transmitted by insect vectors.

b. Koch's postulates.

62. An extremely important set of rules for the determination of bacterial disease transmission is
a. Ehrlich's optimal law.
b. Koch's postulates.
c. Occam's razor.
d. Zeno's paradox.
e. Darwin's law of evolution by natural selection.

c. Cyanobacteria

63. Which group of prokaryotes was responsible for converting Earth's early atmosphere from anaerobic to aerobic?
a. Proteobacteria
b. Halophiles
c. Cyanobacteria
d. Spirochetes
e. Actinobacteria

b. cellulase.

64. Cattle depend on prokaryotes to perform important steps in digestion of plant material, such as generating the enzyme
a. amylase.
b. cellulase.
c. kinase.
d. telomerase.
e. glyoxalase.

a. It is a dangerous combination of different species of toxic bacteria.

65. Which of the following does not describe the biofilm found in the human large intestine?
a. It is a dangerous combination of different species of toxic bacteria.
b. It facilitates nutrient transfer from the intestine to the body.
c. It is essential for our health.
d. Its exact species makeup varies from region to region.
e. Humans get vitamins B12 and K from the bacterial waste products.

e. All of the above

66. An ecologist examining a plant with yellow, sick-looking leaves wonders if the fungus found on its roots is the pathogenic organism. Which of the following steps would be necessary in order to confirm that the fungus is responsible for the disease?
a. Establish that all sick plants have the fungus on their roots.
b. Cause healthy plants to become sick if the fungus is applied to their roots.
c. Be able to isolate the same fungus from newly infected hosts.
d. Both a and b
e. All of the above

e. Both a and c

67. Some biologists think that viruses should not be classified as living organisms because
a. they do not have a cellular structure.
b. they infect all cellular forms of life.
c. they depend on cellular organisms in order to replicate.
d. Both a and b
e. Both a and c

e. Both a and c

68. Which of the following factors make it difficult to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in viruses?
a. Small genomes
b. Diverse capsid morphologies
c. Rapid evolutionary rates
d. Both a and b
e. Both a and c

b. evolved from escaped genomic components.

69. Viruses are thought to have
a. evolved only once in evolutionary history.
b. evolved from escaped genomic components.
c. evolved from reduced cellular components.
d. evolved only twice.
e. Both b and c

a. have only a few genes, including one that allows them to make mRNA from their genome.

70. Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses
a. have only a few genes, including one that allows them to make mRNA from their genome.
b. are responsible for causing plant diseases and are referred to as mosaic viruses.
c. regenerate themselves by reverse transcription.
d. are polyphyletic and include some that have more than a million base pairs.
e. have distinct lipids in their plasma membranes.

a. the single-stranded RNA viruses are not closely related based on nucleotide sequences.

71. Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses are thought to have arisen many times independently because
a. the single-stranded RNA viruses are not closely related based on nucleotide sequences.
b. they have diverse capsid morphology.
c. they cause many human diseases including measles, mumps, and rabies.
d. they have only a few genes.
e. there are no known fossils.

a. all viral types.

72. Human diseases can be caused by
a. all viral types.
b. only DNA viruses.
c. only RNA viruses.
d. only RNA retroviruses.
e. only single-stranded viruses.

b. are responsible for causing plant diseases and are referred to as mosaic viruses.

73. Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses
a. have only a few genes, including one that allows them to make mRNA from their genome.
b. are responsible for causing plant diseases and are referred to as mosaic viruses.
c. regenerate themselves by reverse transcription.
d. are polyphyletic and include some that have more than a million base pairs.
e. have distinct lipids in their plasma membranes.

c. regenerate themselves by reverse transcription.

74. RNA retroviruses
a. have only a few genes, including one that allows them to make mRNA from their genome.
b. are responsible for causing plant diseases and are referred to as mosaic viruses.
c. regenerate themselves by reverse transcription.
d. are polyphyletic and include some that have more than a million base pairs.
e. have distinct lipids in their plasma membranes.

d. are polyphyletic and include some that have more than a million base pairs.

75. Double-stranded RNA viruses
a. have only a few genes, including one that allows them to make mRNA from their genome.
b. are responsible for causing plant diseases and are referred to as mosaic viruses.
c. regenerate themselves by reverse transcription.
d. are polyphyletic and include some that have more than a million base pairs.
e. have distinct lipids in their plasma membranes.

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